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Chapter 4 Part I. Georgia In Transition. New England Colonies, Part I. New England Colonies, Part II. New England colonies made up of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire Land was rocky and the soil poor, most farms were small and difficult to work

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chapter 4 part i

Chapter 4Part I

Georgia In Transition

new england colonies part ii
New England Colonies, Part II
  • New England colonies made up of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Hampshire
  • Land was rocky and the soil poor, most farms were small and difficult to work
  • New England colonists were known for making furniture, fishing, whaling and for making ships
middle colonies part ii
Middle Colonies, Part II
  • Middle Colonies made up of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware
  • Known as the “bread” colonies because their primary crop was wheat
  • Farmers also raised cattle, sheep and hogs; most farms were small but the land was easier to work
  • Other industries included shipbuilding, manufacturing, mining and textiles
southern colonies part ii
Southern Colonies, Part II
  • Southern colonies made up of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia
  • Due to a mild climate and rich soil, the South had many large plantations
  • Grew tobacco, rice and indigo
  • Naval Stores (tar, pitch, rosin and turpentine used for ships) also an important product
transportation and communication
Transportation and Communication
  • Indian paths guided colonists on foot or horseback while boats delivered passengers from port to port
  • Between cities and towns stagecoaches provided more rapid transit
  • Took a week to travel 90 miles from New York to Philadelphia
  • Newspapers were the main source of communication, took week or months for newspapers to get to the rural areas
education
Education
  • For most children schooling occurred between daily chores
  • Most schooling took place in the home or the church, boys taught practical skills (some were made apprentices), girls learned homemaking skills
  • Discipline was very rigid, if a student did not know a lesson they were caned
  • In the South, boys from wealthy families had a tutor or were sent overseas to England or France
leisure time
Leisure Time
  • In New England and Middle Colonies, recreation centered around work, included barn raisings, quilting bees and corn husking
  • Puritans were strict: not allowed to gamble, dance, play cards, or wear frilly clothes
  • In Southern Colonies, recreational activities included fox hunting, horse races, week-long parties and weddings
chapter 4 quiz part i
Chapter 4 Quiz, Part I
  • To what two countries were some wealthy Southern boys sent to for their education?
  • Recreational activities in the New England and Middle Colonies centered around what?
  • What are naval stores?
  • Because of the abundance of trees, what were the New England colonists known for making?
  • Because of a certain crop, what were the Middle Colonies called?
georgia becomes a royal colony
Georgia Becomes a Royal Colony
  • Proprietary Colony: a colony directed by those to whom a charter had been granted
  • Royal Colony: a colony directly governed by the king
  • 1752: Georgia ceased to be a proprietary colony and became a royal colony
  • During the two years before the first royal governor was appointed, some of those that had left GA returned
  • 1752: Puritans from SC bought 32,000 acres of land in present-day Liberty County and brought their slaves with them; soon began growing rice and indigo (from which blue dye is produced); a port was built at Sunbury so that the crops could be shipped
john reynolds 1 st royal governor
John Reynolds, 1st Royal Governor
  • Became GA’s first royal governor in 1754
  • Introduced self-government, created a bicameral (two-chamber) legislature to represent the 8 parishes of GA
  • Two houses were the Common House of Assembly and the Governor’s Council
  • To vote a settler needed at least 50 acres of land; those wanting to be a member of the lower house had to own 500 acres of land; king appointed members of upper house
georgia s first assembly
Georgia’s First Assembly
  • Georgia’s government met for the first time in Savannah in 1755, reorganized the state militia and passed bills so roads could be built and repaired, also drew up codes that restricted the rights of slaves
  • For a while the governor and legislature got along, however, during one legislative session an agreement could not be made on military defense spending, Gov. Reynolds became upset and dismissed the legislature
  • Reynolds tried to govern by himself, but Georgians did not like that their right to self-govern was taken away and complained to George II, after two years of complaint Reynolds was replaced
henry ellis 2 nd royal governor
Henry Ellis, 2nd Royal Governor
  • 1757: Henry Ellis replaced Reynolds as governor, was a naturalist and a scientist
  • Ellis learned from Reynolds’ mistakes and brought together people of many different political groups
  • While governor, additional numbers of colonists came to GA from SC and the West Indies and were granted large amounts of land; population grew from 6000 to 10,000
  • 1759: grew sick and returned to England
james wright 3 rd royal governor
James Wright, 3rd Royal Governor
  • 1760: King George III appointed James Wright as GA’s last royal governor
  • Wright grew up in America and was attorney general of SC
  • Was loyal to the king but also wanted the colonies to do well
  • Believed that GA would continue to grow if large farms were even bigger, if more trading was done and if the western land were opened
french and indian war part i
French and Indian War, Part I
  • The French and English had competing claims to the land in N. America, conflict began in the Ohio River Valley over fur trading; the French began defending their territory from intrusion
  • Native Americans began to choose sides in the coming conflict: French built strong alliance w/the Algonquins and Hurons while the English allied with the Iroquois
french and indian war part ii
French and Indian War, Part II
  • 1754: fighting broke out in the Ohio R. valley and spread across the continent
  • 1754: George Washington’s fame began with his victory over the French and Indians outside of Fort Duquesne, victory was short-lived as he and his men were captured in the counterattack
french and indian war part iii
French and Indian War, Part III
  • Albany Congress: Benjamin Franklin proposed “one general government” for the 13 colonies, accepted by the reps. but not by the colonies
  • French strengths: New France had one central gov. while English had 13 separate govs.
  • English strengths: English clustered on the coast (easy to defend) and ruled the seas while French navy weak and settlements spread apart
french and indian war part iv
French and Indian War, Part IV
  • 1755: Edward Braddock led English & colonial troops against Ft. Duquesne, ignored warnings from Washington and Indian scouts…in battle, ½ the British were killed or wounded, Braddock killed, Washington escaped back to VA
  • French won important victories at Fort Oswego on Lake Ontario and at Fort William Henry on Lake George
french and indian war part v
French and Indian War, Part V
  • 1757: William Pitt becomes new prime minister of England, to win the war in North America he sent England’s best generals and to encourage colonists to support the war he promised large payments for military service and supplies
  • 1758: General Jeffrey Amherst captured Louisbourg, the most important fort in French Canada; British also seized Ft. Duquesne and renamed it Ft. Pitt (modern Pittsburgh)
  • 1759: British took Fort Niagara and Fort Ticonderoga, James Wolfe sent to take Quebec, the capital of New France
  • Wolfe sent troops up the cliff outside Quebec and assembled outside the city, Wolfe was killed during the battle as was Marquis de Montcalm; Quebec surrendered on Se. 18, 1759
  • 1760: Montreal fell and fighting in North America ended
treaty of paris 1763
Treaty of Paris, 1763
  • 1763: France and Britain sign the Treaty of Paris, ending the war; marked the end of French power in North America
  • Britain gained Canada all French lands east of the Mississippi River, France was allowed to keep two islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and its sugar-growing islands in the West Indies; France’s ally Spain was forced to give FL to Britain but received all French land west of the Mississippi and retained control of New Orleans
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