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Chapter 17 Part 4. Peter the Great. Peter the Great 1682-1725. His sister, Sophia, was his first regent when he was very young She plotted to have him killed and was found out Peter had her banished to a monastery His mother took over as regent until he was 22

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chapter 17 part 4

Chapter 17Part 4

Peter the Great

peter the great 1682 1725
Peter the Great 1682-1725
  • His sister, Sophia, was his first regent when he was very young
  • She plotted to have him killed and was found out
  • Peter had her banished to a monastery
  • His mother took over as regent until he was 22
  • He was 7 feet tall and very strong
  • He was a poor loser at games, tests of skill
peter the great
Peter the Great
  • Was fascinated with new technology of the West
  • Toured parts of Western Europe “in disguise”
  • Was a dock worker in the Netherlands
  • Was determined to westernize and modernize Russia…even culturally
  • The Beard Tax (was graduated based on ability to pay)
the revolt of the strelski 1698
The Revolt of the Strelski 1698
  • The Moscow Guard
  • Had successfully overthrown previous leaders
  • Attempted to keep Peter from the throne
  • The revolt was crushed
  • (any similarities to the Fronde in France?)
  • Louis XIV and Peter the Great…both considered the quintessential Absolutist of his region
greatest concern military power
Greatest Concern: Military Power
  • Each Russian village had annual quotas: warm bodies for the military…25 year commitment!
  • 75% of National Revenue went to the military
  • Army numbered 200,000+ men
  • AND an additional 100,000 special Cossack forces
the military
The Military
  • Peter established Royal Military and Artillery Academies
  • All young male nobles were required to leave home and serve 5 years of compulsory education
  • Non-nobles had opportunities to rise within the ranks
  • Large navy (850 ships) built on the Baltic
the great northern war with sweden 1700 1721
The Great Northern War (with Sweden) 1700-1721
  • Russia, Poland, Denmark, Saxony v. Sweden
  • Most important Battle: Battle of Poltava was a decisive Russian victory over Sweden
  • 1721 Treaty of Nystad: Russia gained Latvia and Estonia (Russia’s “Window on the West”) in the Baltic Sea
  • Peter imported western technicians and craftsmen to help build large factories in Russia
  • By 1725 Russia out-produced England in Iron Production (Sweden and German produced more)
  • Factories had industrial form of serfdom (factory workers bought and sold with the factory or not) But industrial serfs produced inferior goods
  • State regulated monopolies
  • Similar to those in Western Europe
the government
The Government
  • Became more efficient
  • The Tsar ruled by decree (absolutist)
  • Theoretically: the tsar owned all land in the state
  • The Nobles and peasants served the state
  • No representative assemblies
  • All landowners owed a lifetime of service to the state (either military or in the civil service or in the courts)
  • In return, the Boyars gained more control over the serfs
table of ranks
Table of Ranks
  • Educational standards for civil servants (most were nobles)
  • Peter tried to replace old Boyar nobility with new service-based nobility loyal to the tsar (like in the West)
  • Secret Police ruthlessly crushed all opponents of the state (tsar)
  • Head tax on every male
  • Heavy taxes on sales and rent
the church
The Church
  • Took control of the Church by making it a cabinet-level department: The Holy Synod in 1700 after the death of the Patriarch
st petersburg
St. Petersburg
  • Tried to create a city similar to Amsterdam
  • Built the Winter Palace there
  • By 1725 it was the largest city in Northern Europe
  • Population of 75,000
  • St. Petersburg became the capital of Russia
st petersburg1
St. Petersburg
  • Construction began in 1703
  • Labor was conscripted (drafted) Peasants
  • Heavy death toll
  • Many Nobles were ordered to move there and build their homes according to Peter’s plans
  • Merchants and artisans also ordered to live in the city and to help build it
peter s reforms
Peter’s Reforms
  • Modernized Russia
  • Had a more modern military and state bureaucracy
  • Peter began issuing explanations of his decrees to gain popular support
peter the great1
Peter the Great
  • Strangled his son with his bare hands