Autism treatment for children
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Autism Treatment for Children - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Autism is a neurobehavioral disorder which cause impairment of social interactions because autism in children affects language and communication skills.

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What is autism
What is Autism

  • It is defined by the presence of abnormal and/ or impaired development that is manifest before the age of 3 years, characterized by abnormalities of social development, communication and a restriction of behavior and interest.

  • Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects how a person communicates with and relates to, other people. It also affects how they make sense of the world around them.

About autism
About Autism

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Autism are both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain function development.

  • The three main areas of difficulty which all people with autism share are sometimes known as the 'triad of impairments'. They are:

  • 1. Difficulty with social communication.

  • 2. Difficulty with social interaction.

  • 3. The difficulty with social imagination.

What causes autism
What Causes Autism?

  • Over the last five years, scientists have identified a number of rare gene changes, or mutations, associated with autism. A small number of these factors are sufficient to cause autism by them.

  • In most cases of autism, however, it appear to be caused by a combination of autismrisk genes and environmental factors influencing early brain development.

  • Autism is four times more likely to affect boys than girls, and is found in all racial, ethnic, and social groups.

What causes autism1
What Causes Autism?

  • There is no known single cause for autism, although the best available scientific point has important genetic components.

  • If one identical (monozygotic) twin has autism then there is an 80-90% chance that the other twin will also be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. For non-identical (dizygotic) twins, the chance is about 3-10% that both twins will develop autism spectrum disorder. The chance that siblings will both be affected by ASD is also about 3-10%.

Autism spectrum disorders
Autism Spectrum Disorders

There are five Autism Spectrum Disorders, sometimes called “Pervasive Developmental Disorders “(PDD).

  • PDD-NOS (Pervasive Developmental Delay.

  • Autism (sometimes referred to as Classic Autism, Early Infantile Autism, Childhood Autism, or Autistic Disorder)

  • Asperger Syndrome

  • Rett Syndrome

  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

Signs of autism spectrum disorder
Signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Autism spectrum disorders affect three different areas of a child's life:

  • Social interaction

  • Communication -- both verbal and non-verbal

  • Behaviors and interests

  • Each child with an ASD will have his or her own pattern of autism.

How is autism diagnosed
How is Autism Diagnosed?

  • Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be difficult since there is no medical test, like a blood test, to diagnose the disorders.

  • Doctors look at the child’s behavior and development to make a diagnosis.

  • Often parents are the first to notice that their child is showing unusual behaviors such as failing to make eye contact, not responding to his or her name or playing with toys in unusual, repetitive ways.

How is autism diagnosed1
How is Autism Diagnosed?

  • ASD can sometimes be detected at 18 months or younger. By age 2, a diagnosis by an experienced professional can be considered very reliable.

  • Diagnosing an ASD takes two steps:

  • Developmental Screening

  • Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation

Developmental screening
Developmental Screening

  • Developmental screening is a short test to tell if a child is learning basic skills when he or she should, or if there are delays.

  • Developmental screening can also be done by other professionals in health care, community, or school settings.

  • Doctors and nurses use developmental screening to tell if children are learning basic skills when they should, or if they might have problems.

  • Your child's doctor may ask you questions or talk and play with your child during an exam to see how he or she learns, speaks, behaves, and moves. A delay in any of these areas could be a sign of a problem.

Developmental screening1
Developmental Screening

  • Additional screening might be needed if a child is at high risk for developmental problems due to pre-term birth, low birth weight or other reasons.

  • If the doctor sees any signs of a problem, a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is needed.

  • 9 months

  • 18 months

  • 24 or 30 months

Comprehensive diagnostic evaluation
Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation

  • The second step of diagnosis is a comprehensive evaluation. This thorough review may include looking at the child’s behavior and development and interviewing the parents.

  • It may also include a hearing and vision screening, genetic testing, neurological testing, and another medical testing.

Comprehensive diagnostic evaluation1
Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation

  • In some cases, the primary care doctor might choose to refer the child and family to a specialist for further assessment and diagnosis. Specialists who can do this type of evaluation include:

  • Developmental Pediatricians (doctors who have special training in child development and children with special needs)

  • Child Neurologists (doctors who work on the brain, spine, and nerves)

  • Child Psychologists or Psychiatrists (doctors who know about the human mind)

Characteristics of autism
Characteristics of Autism

  • Autism is characterized by marked difficulties in behavior, social interaction, communication and sensory sensitivities. Some of these characteristics are common among people with autism; others are typical of the disability but not necessarily exhibited by all people on the autism spectrum.


  • A treatment method or an educational method that will work for one child may not work for another child.

  • Effective early intervention programs are an important first step for children with autism and those with other developmental concerns. Early diagnosis followed by individualized early intervention can provide the best opportunities for achieving their potential.