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Training Needs Assessment (TNA). By: Rainer Zachmann. Unit: M03U02. Content. Why assess training needs? Approach of TNA Semi-structured interviewing. Introduction. Training needs assessment (TNA) gives guidance for a productive training event.

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Training needs assessment tna

Training Needs Assessment(TNA)

By: Rainer Zachmann

Unit: M03U02


  • Why assess training needs?

  • Approach of TNA

  • Semi-structured interviewing


  • Training needs assessment (TNA)gives guidance for a productive training event.

  • Unit M03U02 helps to plan and implement TNA.


  • TNA clarifies whether training is the solution to a problem.

  • Trainers decide how the factors described are relevant for TNA.

Why assess training needs1
Why assess training needs?

  • Training on PGIS is diverse and complex.

  • TNA should be an open-ended, flexible and dynamic process.

  • A training programme depends on the context.

Why assess training needs2
Why assess training needs?

  • TNA determines the current and desired performance; the difference, or gap, is the needed learning.

  • TNA includes the political, economic, social and cultural environment and the physical and human resources available.

Why assess training needs3
Why assess training needs?

  • TNA collects information on knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA) needed for the job.

  • Participatory involvement of trainees is necessary to ensure a sense of ownership commitment, and accomplishment of objectives.

Include relevant stakeholders
Include relevant stakeholders

  • Stakeholders help identify:

    • sources of information;

    • administrative and technical challenges;

    • possible obstacles and proposed solutions.

What does tna determine
What does TNA determine?

  • Whether there is a real training need.

  • The root causes of poor performance.

  • The desired performance level (i.e. the expected results of training).

What does tna determine1
What does TNA determine?

  • Baseline data for planning content and scope of training.

  • Possible support from stakeholders, concerned organisations and prospective participants.


  • Trainers decide to what extent these steps are relevant for TNA:

    • identify stakeholders with relevance to the training process;

    • ask about their expectations, concerns, suggestions, possible conflicts of interest, etc.

    • identify challenges that require training.

Factors for tna
Factors for TNA

  • TNA depends on:

    • expertise present;

    • time available and costs involved;

    • reliability and importance of information;

    • number and location of people involved;

    • confidentiality of data;

    • culture and social climate within an organisation.

Job analysis
Job analysis

  • Ask about job frequency, importance and difficulties.

  • Estimate priorities.


  • Yield in-depth information, background and suggestions.

  • Individual interviewing is labour-intensive.

  • Groups of relevant people may be interviewed together.

  • Make sure to get viewpoints of everyone, not just of the most outspoken people.


  • Collect specific information from a large group.

  • Questionnaires may not allow for free expression.


  • To assess skills, attitudes and behaviour under real situations.

  • Observations are time-consuming and labour-intensive.

Skills and knowledge tests
Skills and knowledge tests

  • Skills tests assess skills.

  • Inappropriate performance may be due to lack of knowledge.

  • Knowledge tests complement skills tests.

Performance data reviews
Performance data reviews

  • Identify possible performance gaps through data reviews.

  • Insufficient performance may be confounded with external factors that cannot be solved through training.


  • TNA makes sure that challenges can be addressed by training.

  • Non-training measures may be needed.

  • Trainers discuss steps with the institutions and people concerned.


  • Interviews are useful for gathering information.

  • But interviewing requires skills and techniques.

Semi structured interviewing
Semi-structured interviewing

  • Semi-structured interviewing requires considerations on:

    • the art of interviewing;

    • content of the interview;

    • guidelines for note taking.