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Asia Pacific Peering Guidebook (v1.6) William B. Norton Co-Founder & Chief Technical Liaison
Internet Researcher • 90% externally focused • Many documents on Protocols • Lack of Operations documents • Research: Peering • How does Peering work? • What are the definitions? • What are the “Tricks of the Trade?” White paper process..
Community Operations Research • “Ground Truth” w/dozens of experts • Write White Paper v0.1 • Walk community through WP for comments • Revise White Paper into new version • Present White Paper at conferences • Solicit comments over lunches and dinners White papers so far…
Internet Operations White Papers • “Interconnection Strategies for ISPs” • “Internet Service Providers and Peering” • “A Business Case for Peering” • “The Art of Peering: The Peering Playbook” • “The Peering Simulation Game” • “Do ATM-based Internet Exchanges Make Sense Anymore?” • “Evolution of the U.S. Peering Ecosystem” • “Asia Pacific Peering Guidebook” Freely available. See Web site or send e-mail to email@example.com Or Google for “William B. Norton”
Research Topic: Peering in Asia • Goals of this 12 month research • Document how the Internet Peering Ecosystems in Asia are different from the rest of the world • What did Peering Coordinators find counter-intuitive? • What surprises did they run into as they expanded their networks into and within Asia? • Result: “The Asia Pacific Internet Peering Ecosystem” (v1.6) • Value of IX, Peering Policies, Biz cases for Peering in AP Ecosystems, etc.
What is this “Peering Ecosystem?” • Global Internet Peering Ecosystem: A system of autonomous but interconnected Internet Regions, each with players that provide connectivity and content to the Internet.
Ecosystem Players • Tier 1 ISPs (ISPs that have access to all the Internet Peering Ecosystem routes solely through free peering relationships), • Tier 2 ISPs (that must buy transit from someone to reach routes within the Internet Peering Ecosystem), and • Content Providers who don’t sell access to the Internet but offer content.
Motivations: Peering Policy • Def: A Restrictive Peering Policy is an articulation of an inclination not to peer. • Def: A Selective Peering Policy is an articulation of an inclination to peer, but with some conditions • Def: An Open Peering Policy is an articulation of an inclination to peer with anyone.
Japan Peering Ecosystem In Japan, the set of Tier 1 ISPs include • Japan Telecom (JT Open Data Network (ODN)), • NTT (and Internet Initiative Japan (IIJ)), • KDDI, and • POWEREDCOM,
Japanese Peering Ecosystem • 80% JP Traffic stays in JP • Tier 1 ISPs own infrastructure • Major Disruption: Yahoo!BB (48Gbps) • 40+Mbps DSL for <$50 USD/mo • FTTH for $100/mo • 1Mbps streaming TV
Interconnect Region Traffic in Tokyo Distributed soon Y!BB especially
Domestic Peering in Japan BLPA peering@ doesn’t work – need legs o the ground Japanese surprises: 3 IXes. Which one to use? Monthly Peering cost=$2500 for local loop, $2500 for rack, $4500 FastE port Transit~$110 for 100Mbps commit Aggregate traffic volume 34Gbps Value of JPIX to participant=(34000Mbps*$110/Mbps)/109 - $11,500=$4096/mo
Singapore Peering Ecosystem SingTel PI StarHub 20% stays in SG Transit is Expensive Gov’t
Business Case for SG Peering 2nd highest transit prices
Australian Peering Ecosystem • Only country to Regulate Peering • Restrictive Peering – Comindico Story • Local Loops Expensive in AU • Retail STM-1 (155M) in Hong Kong $3000/mo • Retail 4M Ethernet in Australia $3000/mo ternet • Relatively low traffic volume • 200Mbps traffic between T1 and T2 • “Content that transcends the language barrier” disallowed
AU Interconnect Regions Local Loops Expensive Volume Billing Grandma Story
Business Case for AU Peering Most expensive “End of the World”
5 Reasons to expand into and within Asia • For Incumbent Tier 1 ISPs to peer their routes outside their home market. • To meet U.S. Tier 1 Peering Prerequisites. • Customers want them in Asia. • Global Marketing Benefits • Sell Transit into a high cost transit market. Costs to expand to Asia…
Lesson #1 - Tier 1 ISPs Do Not Want to Peer in their Internet Region • As described in the Foreign Tier 1 ISP Dynamic • Peering in Adjacent Internet Regions OK • Peering in U.S. • Also Get Cheap U.S. Transit • Also Get Across U.S. to Europe
Lesson #2 – There are Several Challenges Peering in Asia • Many Language Zones. • Language • Internet traffic • Asia is spread across timezones • Asia is spread across oceans • Local Loop Costs • Transit costs are highly variable and in some cases highly discriminatory across Asia:
Lesson #3 – Some Creative Peering Deals • “…Peering iff Transport provided to HK where we will peer out-of-country…” • Peering w/transit purchase common • Peered traffic can not be announced back in to country • Can not peer with my customers
Lesson #4 - International Peering Gotcha: “Tromboning” Traffic through the U.S. 1 AS Hop Across Ocean Beats 2 AS Hops Across Town
Lesson #5 - Local Presence Required • Right Person • Right Time • Manage Time Zone Diff • Manage Peering Socializing • Like old England “Intermediary” Source: Nigel Titley (FLAG) And Erasmus Ng (T-Systems)
Lesson #6 - Separation of International and Domestic Peering • New Zealand – Separate pipes for Transit & Domestic Traffic • Transpacific VERY expensive • 80% traffic to/from U.S. • In Japan & Australia as well? Source: Joe Abley (ISC)
Lesson #7 – “Content that Transcends the Language Barrier” • Hosted content not allowed in many parts of Asia • Hosted overseas • Large volume of traffic • Affects peering and Int’l BW planning
Lesson #8 – No True Regional Content in Asia • Like South America • Few Asian countries host regional content • Contiguous language zones: • Hong Kong, Taiwan, China • Mostly, local eyeballs want local content • Japan: 80% traffic stays in Japan • Singapore: 80% traffic leaves Singapore
Lesson #9 – Content Peering in Asia Works • Microsoft – 100M XP Updates • Only delivered over Peering links • Otherwise, overseas transit • Increases your 95th percentile billables • Yahoo! • Motivated first by best customer experience • Deployed content locally • Peering broadly
Summary • Early Research • International Peering Ecosystem • Internet Regions • Foreign Tier 1 ISP Peering Dynamic • Capture Peering Coordinator Data • Asia Vibrant and Leap Frogging U.S. in some ways • White Paper Available: Send e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org