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  1. Unit 3 Physiological and Participatory Perspectives of Physical Activity

  2. Chapter 1 • National Physical Activity Guidelines & Methods of Assessing Physical Activity • Text Sources • Nelson Physical Education VCE Units 3&4: 4th Edition – Malpeli, Horton, Davey and Telford 2006. • 2. Live It Up 2: 2nd Edition – Smyth, Brown, Judge, McCallum and Pritchard 2006.

  3. Need for and Benefits of Physical Activity National Physical Activity Guidelines & Methods of Assessing Physical Activity

  4. The Need for Physical Activity Physical activity can be defined as ‘any body movement produced by the skeletal muscles that results in expenditure of energy’. • Technology has lessened the need for human movement. • It is now much easier to live, work and play as a result of technology. • However, this reliance has made Australians more sedentary. • Human movement is essential for the health and maintenance of our bodies. • Sedentary lifestyles account for an estimated 1/3 of all deaths. • The most common deaths include heart disease, colon cancer and diabetes. • 30 minutes a day of activity has a range of health and social benefits.

  5. On average, every minute of walking can extend your life by one and a half to two minutes A brisk walk can burn up to 300 calories per hour Physical activity increases your circulation Boosts energy levels and enhances your mood Decrease your risk of many health problems including cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, some forms of cancer and mental health conditions. Improves your balance and flexibility Increase muscle and bone strength Physical activity helps maintain weight control Improve health outcomes for people who are overweight or obese Assist in managing diseases (heart disease, diabetes) Increase the ability of people with certain chronic, disabling conditions to perform activities of daily living Benefits of Physical Activity

  6. Benefits of Physical Activity

  7. Costs of physical inactivity • $400m per year( mid 1990’s costs) • 8000 deaths per year • $1.3m obesity related illness • 6% of total disease burden in males and 8% in females.

  8. National Physical Activity Guidelines National Physical Activity Guidelines & Methods of Assessing Physical Activity

  9. National Physical Activity Guidelines • The Australian Department of Health and Ageing has produced a set of guidelines on the minimum levels of physical activity required for optimum health and body weight. • They are not designed for high-level fitness or sports training, but are intended to provide realistic strategies for incorporating physical activity into our daily lives.

  10. Domains Examples Domains of Physical Activity Leisure-time physical activity Various types of activity; different surveys use generic or activity specific questions, and may ask details of activity frequency, duration and intensity. Gardening and yard work Various definitions, of varied intensities; may range from light-intensity gardening to vigorous chores or digging/moving heavy objects. Household chores Heterogeneous set of tasks; large gender differences; energy expenditure across tasks not well understood. Active transport Walking or cycling for transportation. Occupational physical activity Diverse occupations, with changes in energy expended in many occupations over recent decades.

  11. Dimensions of the National Physical Activity Guidelines • F = frequency (how often) • I = intensity (amount of energy used) • D = duration (how long) • T = type (specific behaviours – what activity) Exercise intensities MET (Metabolic equivalent) is used to measure the amount of oxygen used by the body during physical activity • Rest 1MET • Moderate activity 3MET eg brisk walking • Vigorous activity 6+ eg jogging

  12. Age & Training Principles p.6

  13. Physical Activity Pyramid National Physical Activity Guidelines & Methods of Assessing Physical Activity

  14. Educates people about the types of activities required to enhance fitness, health and wellbeing. People need to participate in all activities in all levels. Like the healthy eating food pyramid, the bottom of the pyramid is activities that we should participate in the most, were as the top is the least. Fitness ladder Physical Activity Pyramid & Ladder

  15. How Active are Australians? National Physical Activity Guidelines & Methods of Assessing Physical Activity

  16. Over 6.5 million Australians are active participants in sports 60% of men and 53% of women successfully achieve the recommended time and frequency to enjoy the benefits of physical activity However, frequency has declined since 1997. 62% of children participate in sport outside of school hours. 20-25% of children and adolescents are overweight. Fewer older people were involved in sport than younger people Just of 50% of those aged 15-24 were active participants How Active are We?

  17. 57% of adults engage in sufficient physical activity for health benefits. However adult male participation is decreasing. Tertiary educated adults more active. Retiree participation rates are increasing due to recent health awareness programs. Adult Participation p.9

  18. National Health Survey Findings 23% of adolescents don’t regularly participate in physical activity. Only one-third of adolescents participate in vigorous activity. Males more active than females. Adolescents are significantly more active during warmer months of the year Adolescent Participation

  19. ABS findings 62% of children participate in organised sport. Boys had a higher participation than girls. Peak participation between 10-12 years of age. Soccer is the most popular boys sport and netball for girls. Accelerometer findings 5-6 year old children average four hours of physical activity per day. 10-12 year olds only average 10 minutes. Children Participation

  20. Age and Gender

  21. Sport Participation Rates

  22. Organised Activities

  23. Gender - Greater proportions of males participate in sport and physical activity than females. Females generally have less opportunity and less access to sporting activities. Socioeconomic Status – Well educated white collar workers are the most physically active Australians. Income – People with higher incomes can participate in a wider variety of activities and more often. Race – People born in Australia are more active than those who were not. Race is often used as a form of discrimination, thus reducing participation. Geographic Location – Where you live can limit access to facilities and specific sports Barriers to Participation

  24. Other Barriers Lack of time due to other commitments Lack of fun and enjoyment Lack of self-motivation Low self-efficacy Injury Lack of self-management skills Lack of encouragement and support Poor coaching Negative environmental factors Barriers to Participation

  25. Barriers to Participation

  26. Measuring levels of Physical Activity National Physical Activity Guidelines & Methods of Assessing Physical Activity

  27. Measuring the amount of physical activity is a complex procedure. Information collected needs to address the types of activities, frequency, intensity and duration. Physical activity covers many domains. Why measure our levels of activity? Document how active our population is Gives feedback on government health programs An active nation is a healthy nation Study the factors that influence our participation Measuring Physical Activity among Individuals and Populations

  28. Methods of Measuring Physical Activity

  29. Dimensions of Physical Activity • Frequency – Number of times a person engages in an activity • Duration – Length of time engaged in an activity • Intensity – How hard an activity is • Type – Domains • Context – Where you are, when, who with etc. • Energy – Measured in METs • Expense – Cost in dollars • Reactivity – How much the measure biases towards the result.

  30. METS, Time and Intensity

  31. Subjective Measures • Examples of subjective (remembering physical activity done) are self-reported recall measures, diaries and logs. Eg. Active Australia Survey

  32. The Active Australia Survey

  33. Direct Observation – Involves watching people and noting specific behaviours and activities they are participating in. Commonly used on children while playing. Advantages Quantitative and qualitative information Behaviour observed Wider variety of information gained Software available Used in school and community settings Disadvantages Difficult with large populations Obtrusive and time consuming Can cause bias Objective Measures Direct Observation

  34. Advantages Physical Activity logs/diaries Disadvantages

  35. Objective Measures - SOPLAY System of Observing Play and Leisure in Youth (SOPLAY) • Used to asses groups of people (Commonly school settings). • Uses a time-sampling technique in a given target area.

  36. Advantages Measurement Options – Direct Observation Disadvantages

  37. SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time) Measures physical activity during PE classes Content and behaviour is observed (See graph) BEACHES (Behaviours of Eating Activity for Children’s Health Evaluation System) Measures children’ eating and physical activity patterns at home and at school. Objective Measures – SOFIT and BEACHES