ETHNOBOTANY Therehas alwaysbeen interaction between plants & people. Someunexpected. Wordstell strange tales of needand greed, + small causes& profound effects.
The interactionwith plants predates thegeneration of presenthumans. Fossil teeth of early hominids show that ourancestorswere omnivorous andprobablyconsumed and used awide variety of plants. Excavations of cave dwellings occupied overmillions of years ago showthatPeking Man, gathered nuts (walnut), rose hips & roastedblack berry seeds.
Wildrose : Rosacanina (Dogrose) (about 100 Species) • RoseHip, orRoseHaworRose Hep, - fruit of theroseplant. • Mesopotamia > Palestine, acrossTurkeytoGreece. • Differentcolours.
Blackberry • Botanical: RubusfructicosusFamily: RosaceaeRubus L. ± 430 species12 subgenera.
This morning you ate and drank plants orplantproducts. Most of you are wearing plants. Plant based fuel transported you here and keepthelightsin thishallshining.
Seed hairs from cotton whichfunction innature as adispersalmechanism, turnintocloth after wegather & process it. Gumsexuded by plants toward off infection become thinning agents forarticles as diverseas chocolate milk andmining equipment.
Archaeologicalfinds have also demonstrated “THAT” thehistory of peoples' association with plants did not begin at acertain point! aftertheydiscoveredtheycould EAT orUSE PLANTS. Differentkinds of plantswere available indifferent partsof theworld, various people built uptheirOWN INVENTORIESofplantsthey USED & CONSUMED.
Early humans would have chosen plants thatappealed to the sensesof COLOUR + ODOR + TASTE. Humanbeingshave also been able to inventnovel uses for many plant products.
LighteningFires By observing naturallyoccurring fires,humans learned to exploit plantsas source offuel.
It is easy to forget that plants are fundamental to ourlives. Yet much of human history and culture isdetermined by what plants do or can be made to dous. Plants have played an important partinthehumandevelopment.
Over380,000 ????plant speciesonearth. -Whichof them will shape ourfuture? How willwe treat this naturalresource on whichoursurvival depends? Plantshavegreat effectonhuman development & theeconomy of manycountries. Development of human civilization too is closelyrelatedtothe PLANT WORLD.
Search for lands of spices wasthereasonfor • thediscoveryofAmericas AND • colonial invasionsof Asia +Africa. • Patterns of international trade in • RUBBER (Heveabrasiliensis) • OPIUM ( Papaversomniferum), • QUININE (Cinchonapubescens ) • Coffee (Coffeaarabica ), and • Coca have altered the fates of entire nations.
Heveabrasiliensis, theParárubbertree, sharingatree, or, mostcommonly, • therubbertree, is a treebelongingtothefamilyEuphorbiaceae.
Manyrubber-yielding plants ofboth Old world + New world, theprimary sourceof rubber has always been Hevaeabrasiliensisbecause of high percentageof rubber in its latex.
Opium poppy, Papaversomniferum,Papaveraceae. the "sleep-bringing poppy", referring to the sedativeproperties of some of these opiates. Opium is the source of many narcotics,includingmorphine (and itsderivativeheroin), thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine.
Use of the opium poppy predates written • history. • Images of opium poppies have been • found inancientSumerianartifacts • (circa 4000 BC). • Making and use of opium was known • to the ancientMinoans.
Sap was later named opion by the • ancient Greeks, from whence it gained its • modern name of opium. • Used for treating asthma, stomach illnesses, • and bad eyesight. • 1st &2nd Opium Wars among China, • British Empire & France during1830 -1860, • when the Chinese attempted to stop western • traders smuggling opium into their country.
CinchonaorQuina (Quinine) is aGenus(38 species). • FamilyRubiaceaeCinchonapubescens . • NativetothetropicalAndesforests of western • South America. • Medicinalplants, known as sourcesforquinine • andothercompounds.
Rubiaceae:Coffeaarabicais a species ofCoffeaoriginallyindigenoustothemountains of thesouthwesternhighlands of Ethiopia. • It is alsoknown as the "coffeeshrub of Arabia", "mountaincoffee" or "arabicacoffee“.
South Americancoffeesaregrown in themountainousregionsstretchingfromColombia, Boliviaand Peru toBrazil. Theseregionsproduce a largefamily of coffeesthatmanifest a brightandlivelyaciditywith a cleansmoothfinish.
Severalspecies of Coffeaaregrownforthebeans. Coffeaarabicaaccountsfor 75-80 percent of theworld'scoffeeproduction, whileCoffeacanephoraaccountsforabout 20 percent. • Caffeinein coffee "beans" is a naturalplantdefenseagainstherbivory, i.e. a toxicsubstancethatprotectstheseeds of theplant.
Coffee is theworld’sfavouritedrink, an important commercialcrop-plant, andthe 2nd most valuableinternationalcommodityafteroil. • Worldwidethereareabout 20 millioncoffee farmingfamilies; around 100 millionpeopledepend on coffee fortheirlivelihoods. • Itsexportvaluealone is immense (US $ 15.4 billion in 2009/10) and as such it plays a crucial role in the economies of severaltropicalcountries.
Originallyfromthehighaltitude, humidforests of Ethiopiaand South Sudan, where it stillgrowswild, Arabicacoffee (Coffeaarabica) is consideredtoproducethefinestcoffeebeans. • Mostinstantcoffee is madefrom a mixture of ArabicaandRobusta (Coffeacanephora), thelatterhaving a lessdelicateflavourand aroma andmorecaffeine. Libericacoffee (Coffealiberica) • Generally, Arabica is grown in uplandplantationsandRobusta in lowlandplantations.
In total, thereare 125 coffeespecies, whichoccurnaturally in Africa, theIndianOceanIslands, (Madagascar, Comoros, andtheMascarenes), southernAsia, southeastAsiaandAustralia. • ArabicaandRobustacoffeearethemainbeveragespecies, with a smallpercentage of Libericacoffee (Coffealiberica) grownforcommercialpurposes. • Otherspecies in East AfricaandMadagascararesometimesusedlocallytomakecoffee on a verysmallscale.
Map of coffeebeanproduction: r forC. robusta, a forC.arabica, and m forbothspecies
Coca is one of the 4 cultivatedplantswhichbelongtothefamilyErythroxylaceae, nativeto western South America. • Plant is a cashcrop in Argentina, Bolivia, andPeru. • Coca is knownthroughouttheworldforitspsychoactivealkaloid, cocaine. • Alkaloidcontent of cocaleaves is low, between 0.25% and 0.77%.
Chewingtheleavesordrinkingcocatea does not produceintensehigh(euphoria, megalomania,depression), peopleexperiencewithcocaine. • Cocaine-freecocaleafextract is used in CocaCola. • Wildpopulations of Erythroxylumcoca var. coca in easternAndes.
Erythroxylumcoca E. coca var. coca (BolivianCoca) - easternAndes of Peru andBolivia. • E. coca var. ipadu(AmazonianCoca) –cultivated in the lowland Amazon Basin in Peru andColombia. • Erythroxylumnovogranatense • E. novogranatense var. novogranatense (ColombianCoca) -E. novogranatensevar. truxillense(TrujilloCoca) – Grownprimarily in Peru andColombia. • All 4 cultivatedcocasdomesticated in pre-Columbiantimes.
Search for medicinal herbs, • possessingaphrodisiacproperties • Ginseng • (foundonly in theNorthernHemisphere, • North AMR, easternAsia • ( Korea, China, Bhutan, andeasternSiberia), • typically in coolerclimates. • Panaxvietnamensis,discovered in Vietnam. • Panax ginsengandP. quinquefolius. • Ginseng is characterizedbythe presence • of ginsenosides.
Red Ginseng Korea 2003, White, Sun, Wild + P. quinquefoliusAmerican ginseng A study of ginseng'seffects on ratsfound, whilebothwhite ginseng andred ginseng appeartoreducetheincidence of cancer, theeffectsappearto be greaterwithred ginseng. Anotherstudyshowedpotentiallybeneficialeffects of a combination of Koreanred ginseng andhighlyactiveantiretroviraltherapy in HIV-1-infectedpatients.
Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcussenticosus) • samefamily as true ginseng, • an adaptogenicherb. • Activecompoundsareeleutherosides, • not ginsenosides. • Instead of a fleshyroot, has a woodyroot. • Pausinystaliayohimbe(Rubiaceae) • (Yohimbeyohimbe, yohimbe bark) • &longevity haveresulted in an immense • biodiversity loss.
RubiaceaePausinystaliayohimbe (Yohimbeyohimbe, yohimbe bark) formerly-Corynantheyohimbe, sometimesspelledjohimb. • A psychoactiveplantcontaining • MAOI alkaloidyohimbine (herbalaphrodisiac).Origin- bark of an Africatree.
Herbalmedication can causetachycardiaand • hypertensionifimproperlydosed. YohimbineorYohimbecontains 55 otheralkaloids. Yohimbineaccountsfor1-20 % of its total alkaloidcontent.
Dietarysupplement: dried bark of theyohimbetree is madeintoteaandtakenbymouth. Extract of bark is also put intocapsulesandtablets.
Explored as a remedyfortype 2 diabetes in animalandhumanmodels. Yohimbine is an alkaloidnaturallyfound in Pausinystaliayohimbe(Yohimbe),Rauwolfiaserpentina(IndianSnakeroot), andAlchorneafloribunda(Niando), alongwithseveralotheractivealkaloids.
Plantsproduce an array of chemicals knownas secondarymetabolites. Many of theseareutilizedby us forvariouspurposes, specially for makingmedicines and as healingagents.
Rubber is asecondarymetabolite. Anintegralpart ofhuman development and civilization. BUT alarmingdeclinein natural forestandforest habitats due todeforestation + humandisturbances, theseare acausefor grave concern.
GoogleEarth Engine willdistribute in January 2014 • Everyyearforestcoverdecreasing. • Phtotgraphstakenfromshowhowforesthavedecreaseduringthelast 12 year. • Space(654 000 178 imagestaken-2000-2012). • In 12 years ± 2.3 milion km 2 area of forestslost. Only 800 000 km 2 of forestsgained (reforestration). RED colourshowsdecreasingforests, bluereforestation. • Maximumforestlosses in Indpnesia, Malaysia, Paraguay, Bolivya, Zambiya and Angola…
Sadly, thisis occurring at a timewhen interest in theuse of plantsfor medicinal & other economicpurposesis increasing. Theadvancesinbiotechnology+ genetic engineeringhave the potentialof developingthe botanical resources forhuman development all over the world. Exponential growth of worldpopulationcalls for aproportionate increase inproduction.
Botanical resourcesareimportant source of Economic Diversificationas: food, in horticulture, infloriculture, in chemical & pharmaceutical industries. Alldistributebenefits to thepoor, but thisdependson anumber offactors.
Most fundamental is for morethorough & reliableinformationaboutthe resources. Itneedsthorough extensive and intensive biologicalresearch & conservation. Plants produce primary compounds suchas sugars, proteins and oils, used in aplant'sbasic metabolism and form thebase ofourfood web.
Severalplant species are used tosupply us &ourdomesticatedanimals, beverages, spices , medicinal plants andraw materials forclothing &housing + a multitude of requirements.
For allthese important plants, weneedtoknow BOTANY , PHYSIOLOGY, ECOLOGY, BREEDING/PRODUCTION, CULTIVATION–HARVESTING processes, diseases-pests, processing andutilization. WE haveSUGAR PLANTS and StarchPlants (Cereals & Millets, Root crops, Tuber crops)
Sugar plants: Provide us mostly withsucroseandfructose, likesugar cane, sugar beet, date palm,palmyrapalm, maple plant, nypa palm (Nipafruticans), and fish-tail palm (Caryotaurens). • Nypafruticans, (Arecaceae) commonlyknown as thenipapalm, is a species of palmnativetothecoastlinesandestuarinehabitats of theIndianandPacificOceans.