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Portable Fuel Container Spillage Control Project

Portable Fuel Container Spillage Control Project

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Portable Fuel Container Spillage Control Project

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  1. Portable Fuel Container Spillage Control Project Monitoring and Laboratory Division June 28, 1999 California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board

  2. Portable Fuel Container Spillage Control Workshop • Changes in the Proposed Regulations • Proposed Test Methods for Spill-Proof Systems • Draft Refueling Spillage Test Data • Permeation and Barrier Feasibility Test Data • Estimated Effectiveness of Spill-Proof Systems • Population/Activity/Emissions Inventory • Estimated Price Increases for Spill-Proof Systems • Regulatory Process • More Information

  3. Proposed Portable Fuel Container Spillage Control Regulations • Proposed Regulations apply to both portable fuel containers and spouts • Section 2472. Performance Standards for Spill-Proof Systems and Spill-Proof Spouts • Section 2472 (a)&(b). Three flow rate standards based on container size (e.g., 1/2 gallon/minute for containers 1.25 gallons) • Section 2472. Permeation Standard of 0.4 grams/gallon/day

  4. Proposed Portable Fuel Container Spillage Control Regulations (continued) • Section 2473. Exemptions, rapid refueling devices for off-road motorcycle competitions & portable fuel tanks for outboards • Section 2475. Flow rate labeling requirement • Section 2477. Test Methods for determining compliance with Performance Standards

  5. Section 2477. Test Methods • Test Method 510 - Automatic Shut-Off Test Procedure • Test Method 511 - Automatic Closure Test Procedure • Test Method 512 - Flow Rate Test Procedure • Test Method 513 - Permeation Test Procedure

  6. Test Method 510 - Automatic Shut-Off • Fill container with water and invert for 5 minutes to check for leaks • Dispense contents into a 1/2 gallon test fixture • Fill test fixture to at least 1 inch from the top of the opening (± 1/8”) without overflowing • Repeat the process 3 times

  7. Test Method 511 - Automatic Closure • Apply Test Method 510 protocol except fill the test fixture to approximately 50% of capacity • Hold the inverted container over the test fixture for 30 seconds to check for leaks and proper function of automatic closure • Pressurize container to 10 psig with the spout installed, leave undisturbed for 24-hours and record any pressure loss • Maximum allowable 24-hour pressure loss is 1 psig

  8. Test Method 512 - Flow Rate Test Procedure • Fill container to its nominal capacity with water and invert for 5 minutes to check for leaks • Determine the amount of time to dispense all but approximately 1 pint of the liquid • Determine the mass of liquid dispensed by pre and post weighing the container • Calculate a flow rate in gallons/minute using the density of water at 25°C • Test each container 3 times to determine the average flow rate

  9. Test Method 513 - Determination of Permeation Rates • Precondition containers with gasoline for a minimum of 4 weeks • Empty and re-fill containers with CERT fuel, seal, leak test, then expose to a 24-hour variable temperature profile • Weigh containers every 24-hours to determine the permeation rate gravimetrically • Must verify weight loss is linear (steady state) • Average of 5 consecutive 24-hour diurnal cycles used to determine the final rate

  10. Refueling Spillage Test Procedure • Randomly selected ARB employees using conventional containers and spouts fill a 2400 ml fuel tank • Each participant performs several trials with randomly selected containers • Mass of the fuel dispensed is determined by pre and post weighing the containers

  11. Refueling Emissions Test Bench

  12. Refueling Emissions Test Bench

  13. Draft Refueling Spillage Test Data • Out of 56 events, 25 included refueling spillage (45%) • Average per spillage event (less displaced vapor) =16.4 grams • Total fuel dispensed - 51.1 gallons • Testing will continue through July 2nd, final results will be posted on our web site

  14. Permeation and Barrier Feasibility Tests • Average permeation rates determined from testing untreated HDPE containers • Treated containers also tested to determine the effectiveness of barrier surface treatments • Containers ranged in size from 1.25 gallons to 6.6 gallons and included products from 5 different manufacturers • Containers were tested with Phase II California Reformulated Certification (CERT) fuel • Select containers were also tested with a blend of Carbob and fuel grade ethanol (5.7% mass) • Barrier surface treatments included Sulfonation & 2 levels of Fluorination (levels 3 & 5)

  15. Permeation and Barrier Feasibility Tests

  16. Permeation and Barrier Surface Treatment Feasibility Test Data

  17. Average Permeation Rates for Untreated Containers • 1.25 gallons - 1.52 g/gal/day • 2.06 gallons - 1.88 g/gal/day • 2.5 gallons - 1.46 g/gal/day • 5 gallons - 1.43 g/gal/day • 6.6* gallons - 1.09 g/gal/day • Average Permeation Rate - 1.57 grams/gallon/day

  18. Average Permeation Rates for Treated Containers

  19. Average Permeation Rates Proposed Standard

  20. Estimated Effectiveness of Spill-Proof Systems • Reduce diurnal emissions by 75% • Eliminate refueling spillage - 100% • Eliminate transport and storage losses - 100% • Reduce average permeation rates by 75% • Collects 45% of displaced vapors

  21. Portable Fuel Container (Gas Cans) Population/Activity/Emissions Inventory Mobile Source Control Division June 28, 1999 California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board

  22. Statewide Population and Activity of Gas Cans • Determined through surveys • Residential Survey • Commercial Survey

  23. Residential Population/Activity Parameters • % of households with gas cans - 46% • # of gas cans per household - 0.8 • % of gas cans stored empty - 30% • Average gas can capacity - 3.0 gallons • Average age of gas can - 5.5 years • Plastic and metal gas cans ratio - 76:24

  24. Residential Population/Activity Parameters (Continued) • % Plastic cans with closed system - 53% • % Plastic cans with open system - 23% • % Metal cans with closed system - 13% • % Metal cans with open system - 11%

  25. Commercial Population/Activity Parameters • # of gas cans per business - 6.9 • Average gas can capacity - 3.4 gallons • Average age of gas cans - 1.34 years • Plastic and metal gas cans ratio - 72:28

  26. Commercial Population/Activity Parameters (Continued) • % Plastic cans with closed system - 33% • % Plastic cans with open system - 39% • % Metal cans with closed system - 18% • % Metal cans with open system - 10%

  27. Gas Can Population Estimates • Residential gas can population - 9 million • Expansion Factor - # of housing units by county obtained from California State Department of Finance • Commercial gas can population - 400,000 • Expansion Factor - # of businesses which may have gas cans from InfoUSA database

  28. Various Emissions Related Processes Associated with Gas Cans • Diurnal Loss - Ambient Temperature • Permeation Loss - Pressure and gas can material • Spillage - During refueling of equipment • Vapor Displacement - During refueling of equipment

  29. Permeation Emission Rates • 1.57 grams per gallon per day • Obtained through gravimetric testing of several gas cans

  30. Diurnal Emission Rates (Draft) • Several cans under different conditions were tested using Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination method. • Plastic/closed system - 2.15 g/gal/day • Plastic/open system - 21.76 g/day • Metal/closed system - 2.15 g/gal/day • Metal/open system - 21.76 g/gal/day

  31. Spillage and Vapor Displacement Emission Rate • 17.3 g/refueling - obtained from USEPA’s NEVES report • Vapor displacement - 4.52 g/gal • Waiting for Data

  32. Estimated Prices of Spill-Proof Systems • Average price increase per Spill-Proof System estimated between $5.50 - $8.00 per container • Estimate compares retail prices of similarly constructed containers • Breaks containers into 3 size categories, 1-1.5 , 2-2.5, 5-6 gallons • Pre-Regulation retail estimates of fuel containers are: • 1-1.5 gallon - $3.24 • 2-2.5 gallon - $4.69 • 5-6 gallon - $9.99

  33. Regulatory Process • Workshop June 28, 1999 • Consider all comments received by July 9, 1999 • Staff Report - August 6, 1999 • Start of 45 day public comment period • Board Hearing - September 23, 1999

  34. More Information On The Emissions Inventory • www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/spillcon/inventor.htm • Archana Agrawal, Manager, Inventory Assessments Section (626) 450-6136 • aagrawal@arb.ca.gov

  35. More Information On The Regulation • www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/spillcon/spillcon.htm • Workshop presentation will be posted on the web site • Dean Bloudoff (916) 263-2070 • dbloudof@arb.ca.gov