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Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders. Quiz. Social nonconformity is the failure to conform to societal norms or the usual minimum standards for social conduct, culturally specific. Mood disorder is a major disturbance in mood or emotion, such as depression or mania or bipolarity.

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  • Social nonconformity is the failure to conform to societal norms or the usual minimum standards for social conduct, culturally specific.
  • Mood disorder is a major disturbance in mood or emotion, such as depression or mania or bipolarity.
  • Schizophrenia means having a split personality
  • Everyone who experiences the same traumatic event will experience PTSD.
  • Once someone is diagnosed with a major mental health disorder, they are considered crazy and there is not much that can be done to help them.
what is normal
What is Normal?
  • Psychopathology: Scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders; abnormal or maladaptive behavior
  • Subjective Discomfort: Subjective feelings of pain, unhappiness, or emotional distress
  • Statistical Abnormality: Having extreme scores on some dimension, such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression
what is normal continued
What is Normal? Continued
  • Social Nonconformity: Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct; usually leads to destructive or self-destructive behavior
  • Situational Context: Social situation, behavioral setting, or general circumstances in which an action takes place
    • Is it normal to walk around strangers naked? If you are in a locker room and in the shower area, yes!
cultural relativity
Cultural Relativity
  • Prepare a list of normal behaviors that involve interacting with other people
  • Who are they normal or abnormal for?
  • A man? A woman? A culture emphasizing passivity? A culture emphasizing aggression?
  • Judgments are made relative to the values of one’s culture
statistical abnormality
Statistical Abnormality
  • Estimate the number of parties you have attended in the last month.
  • Estimate the number of hours you have spent watching TV or using the computer (not for homework) in the last week
  • Estimate the number of hours you have spent with your family in the last week
  • What should define compulsive partying? Or other compulsive behavior?
  • What is the cutoff for being addicted to any of these behaviors?
clarifying and defining abnormal behavior mental illness
Clarifying and Defining Abnormal Behavior (Mental Illness)
  • Maladaptive Behavior: Behavior that makes it difficult to function, to adapt to the environment, and to meet everyday demands
  • Mental Disorder: Significant impairment in psychological functioning
  • Those with mental illness lose the ability to adequately control thoughts, behaviors, or feelings
general risk factors for contracting mental illness
General Risk Factors for Contracting Mental Illness
  • Social Conditions: Poverty, homelessness, overcrowding, stressful living conditions
  • Family Factors: Parents who are immature, mentally ill, abusive, or criminal; poor child discipline; severe marital or relationship problems
  • Psychological Factors: Low intelligence, stress, learning disorders
  • Biological Factors: Genetic defects or inherited vulnerabilities; poor prenatal care, head injuries, exposure to toxins, chronic physical illness, or disability
  • Definition: A legal term; refers to an inability to manage one’s affairs or to be aware of the consequences of one’s actions
    • Those judged insane (by a court of law) are not held legally accountable for their actions
    • Can be involuntarily committed to a psychiatric hospital
    • Some movements today are trying to abolish the insanity plea and defense; desire to make everyone accountable for their actions
    • How accurate is the judgment of insanity?
  • How do you define insanity?
  • DSM-IV TR definition: Interferes with daily functioning on the following 2 out of 5 of the following categories.
  • (page 312)
  • Legal Defense: When an accused person in a criminal prosecution to avoid liability for the commission of a crime because, at the time of the crime, the person did not appreciate the nature or quality or wrongfulness of the acts.
antisocial personality disorder apd
Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)
  • A person who lacks a conscience (superego?); typically emotionally shallow, impulsive, selfish, and manipulative toward others
    • Oftentimes called psychopaths or sociopaths
  • Many are delinquents or criminals, but many are NOT crazed murderers displayed on television
  • Create a good first impression and are often charming
  • Cheat their way through life (e.g., Scott Peterson)
apd causes and treatments
APD: Causes and Treatments
  • Possible Causes:
    • Childhood history of emotional deprivation, neglect, and physical abuse
    • Underarousal of the brain
  • Very difficult to effectively treat; will likely lie, charm, and manipulate their way through therapy
anxiety based disorders
Anxiety-Based Disorders
  • Anxiety: Feelings of apprehension, dread, or uneasiness
  • Adjustment Disorders: When ordinary stress causes emotional disturbance and pushes people beyond their ability to effectively cope
    • Usually suffer sleep disturbances, irritability, and depression
    • Examples: Grief reactions, lengthy physical illness, unemployment
panic disorder without agoraphobia
Panic Disorder without Agoraphobia
  • A chronic state of anxiety with brief moments of sudden, intense, unexpected panic (panic attack)
    • Panic Attack: Feels like one is having a heart attack, going to die, or is going insane
    • Symptoms include vertigo, chest pain, choking, fear of losing control
specific phobias
Specific Phobias
  • Irrational, persistent fears, anxiety, and avoidance that focus on specific objects, activities, or situations
  • People with phobias realize that their fears are unreasonable and excessive, but they cannot control them
  • Recurring images or thoughts that a person cannot prevent
    • Cause anxiety and extreme discomfort
    • Enter into consciousness against the person’s will
    • Most common: Being dirty, wondering if you performed an action (turned off the stove), or violence (hit by a car)
    • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) : Extreme preoccupation with certain thoughts and compulsive performance of certain behaviors
  • Irrational acts that person feels compelled to repeat against his/her will
    • Help to control anxiety created by obsessions
    • Checkers and cleaners
stress disorders
Stress Disorders
  • Occur when stresses outside range of normal human experience cause major emotional disturbance
    • Symptoms: Reliving traumatic event repeatedly, avoiding stimuli associated with the event, and numbing of emotions
acute stress disorder
Acute Stress Disorder
  • Psychological disturbance lasting up to one month following stresses from a traumatic event
  • What does a nervous breakdown look like?
  • What has broken down?
  • What nerves are being referred to?
post traumatic stress disorder ptsd
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Lasts more than one month after the traumatic event has occurred; may last for years
    • Typically associated with combat and violent crimes (rape, assault, etc.)
    • Terrorist attacks on September 11th, 2001, likely led to an increase of PTSD
dissociative disorders
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative Amnesia: Inability to recall one’s name, address, or past
  • Dissociative Fugue: Sudden travel away from home and confusion about personal identity
    • Usually triggered by highly traumatic events
split personality
Split Personality
  • What does split personality mean?
  • What is split?
  • What would it look like?
  • How would you treat it?
dissociative identity disorder did
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
  • Person has two or more distinct, separate identities or personality states; previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder
    • “Sybil” or “The Three Faces of Eve” are good examples
    • Often begins with horrific childhood experiences (e.g., abuse, molestation, etc.)
    • Therapy often makes use of hypnosis
    • Goal: Integrate and fuse identities into single, stable personality
  • Person is preoccupied with having a serious illness or disease
    • Interpret normal sensations and bodily signs as proof that they have a terrible disease
    • No physical disorder can be found
somatization disorder
Somatization Disorder
  • Person expresses anxieties through numerous physical complaints
    • Many doctors are consulted but no organic or physical causes are found
glove anesthesia
Glove Anesthesia
  • Loss of skin sensitivity in areas normally covered by a glove
theoretical causes of anxiety disorders psychodynamic freud
Theoretical Causes of Anxiety Disorders: Psychodynamic (Freud)
  • Anxiety caused by conflicts among id, ego, and superego
    • Forbidden id impulses for sex or aggression are trying to break into consciousness and thus influence behavior; person fears doing something crazy or forbidden
    • Superego creates guilt in response to these impulses
    • Ego gets overwhelmed and uses defense mechanisms to cope
  • Loss of contact with shared views of reality
  • Delusions: False beliefs that individuals insist are true, regardless of overwhelming evidence against them
  • Imaginary sensations, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling things that do not exist in the real world
    • Most common psychotic hallucination is hearing voices
    • Note that olfactory hallucinations sometimes occur with seizure disorder (epilepsy)
some more psychotic symptoms
Some More Psychotic Symptoms
  • Flat Affect: Lack of emotional responsiveness; face is frozen in blank expression
  • Disturbed Verbal Communication: Garbled and chaotic speech; word salad
  • Personality Disintegration: When an individual’s thoughts, actions, and no longer connected
other psychotic disorders
Other Psychotic Disorders
  • Organic Psychosis: Psychosis caused by brain injury or disease
    • Dementia: Most common organic psychosis; serious mental impairment in old age caused by brain deterioration
    • Archaically known as senility
alzheimer s disease
Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Symptoms include impaired memory, mental confusion, and progressive loss of mental abilities
    • Ronald Reagan most famous Alzheimer’s victim
delusional disorders
Delusional Disorders
  • Marked by presence of deeply held false beliefs (delusions)
    • May involve delusions of grandeur, persecution, jealousy, or somatic delusions
    • Experiences could really occur!
  • Paranoid Psychosis: Most common delusional disorder
    • Centers on delusions of persecution
schizophrenia the most severe mental illness
Schizophrenia: The Most Severe Mental Illness
  • Psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, apathy, thinking abnormalities, and “split” between thoughts and emotions
    • Does NOT refer to having split or multiple personalities
four subtypes of schizophrenia
Four Subtypes of Schizophrenia
  • Disorganized: Incoherence, grossly disorganized behavior, bizarre thinking, and flat or grossly inappropriate emotions
  • Catatonic: Marked by stupor, unresponsiveness, posturing, mutism, and sometimes, by agitated, purposeless behavior
  • Paranoid type: Preoccupation with delusions; also involves auditory hallucinations that are related to a single theme, especially grandeur or persecution
  • Undifferentiated: Any type of schizophrenia that does not have specific paranoid, catatonic, or disorganized features or symptoms
causes of schizophrenia
Causes of Schizophrenia
  • Psychological Trauma: Psychological injury or shock, often caused by violence, abuse, or neglect
  • Disturbed Family Environment: Stressful or unhealthy family relationships, communication patterns, and emotional atmosphere
  • Deviant Communication Patterns: Cause guilt, anxiety, anger, confusion, and turmoil
biochemical causes of schizophrenia
Biochemical Causes of Schizophrenia
  • Biochemical Abnormality: Disturbance in brain’s chemical systems or in the brain’s neurotransmitters
  • Dopamine: Neurotransmitter involved with emotions and muscle movement
    • Works in limbic system
  • Dopamine overactivity in brain may be related to schizophrenia
  • Glutamate: A neurotransmitter; may also be involved
schizophrenic brain images
Schizophrenic Brain Images
  • Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: Computer enhanced X-ray of brain or body
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan: Computer enhanced three-dimensional image of brain or body; based on magnetic field
    • MRIs show schizophrenic brains as having enlarged ventricles
stress vulnerability model
Stress-Vulnerability Model
  • Combination of environmental stress and inherited susceptibility cause schizophrenic disorders
mood disorders
Mood Disorders
  • Major disturbances in emotion, such as depression or mania
  • Depressive Disorders: Sadness or despondency are prolonged, exaggerated, or unreasonable
  • Bipolar Disorders: Involve both depression and mania or hypomania
  • Dysthymic Disorder: Moderate depression that lasts for at least two years
  • Cyclothymic Disorder: Moderate manic and depressive behavior that lasts for at least two years
major mood disorders
Major Mood Disorders
  • Lasting extremes of mood or emotion and sometimes with psychotic features (hallucinations, delusions)
  • Major Depressive Disorder: A mood disorder where the person has suffered one or more intense episodes of depression; one of the more serious mood disorders
bipolar disorders
Bipolar Disorders
  • Bipolar I Disorder: Person experiences extreme mania and deep depression
    • Mania: Excited, hyperactive, energetic, grandiose behavior
  • Bipolar II Disorder: Person is mainly sad but has one or more hypomanic episodes (mild mania)
postpartum depression
Postpartum Depression
  • Moderately severe depression that begins within three months following childbirth
    • Marked by mood swings, despondency, feelings of inadequacy, and an inability to cope with the new baby
    • May last from two months to one year
    • Part of the problem may be hormonal
seasonal affective disorder sad
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
  • Depression that only occurs during fall and winter
    • May be related to reduced exposure to sunlight
    • Phototherapy: Extended exposure to bright light to treat SAD
other psychological disorders
Other Psychological Disorders
  • Substance Related Disorders: Abuse or dependence on a mind- or mood-altering drug, like alcohol or cocaine
    • Person cannot stop using the substance and may suffer withdrawal symptoms if they do
  • Sexual and Gender Identity Disorder: Problems with sexual identity, deviant sexual behavior, or sexual adjustment
  • Neurosis: Archaic; once used to refer to anxiety, somatoform, dissociative disorders, and to some forms of depression (as a whole group)
mentally healthy
Mentally Healthy?

What does it mean to be mentally healthy?

What are the basic attributes?

How can we discuss psychopathology (problems) without a thorough understanding of health?

For example: Jahoda’s list:

Accurate self concept, self awareness and self acceptance

Self actualization, full use of potential


Integration, a coherent outlook on life

Accurate perceptions of reality and social sensitivity

Competence and mastery of the environment

deviant behavior
Deviant Behavior
  • You get the chance to observe deviant behavior in action.
  • In groups of 3, one of you will be the deviant behaver, and the other 2 will be the observers.
  • Go out in the building, or surrounding areas and do something that is not “normal”
  • The observers will report how your behavior was responded to by other people
  • Don’t do anything entirely inappropriate, offensive or that would get yourself or me into trouble
  • See page 533 in your textbooks for an example
deviant discussion
Deviant Discussion
  • Reactions of the unsuspecting to the “deviant”
  • Negative sanctions applied by the subjects
  • Feelings of students before, during and after event
  • What does it mean to be normal or abnormal? Are your thoughts different now than they were in the beginning of class?