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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECONDARY AND HIGHER EDUCATION. Younas Alam Chowdhry & Usman Riaz Warraich Imperial College of Business Studies, Lahore. CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION.

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    1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECONDARY AND HIGHER EDUCATION YounasAlamChowdhry & UsmanRiazWarraich Imperial College of Business Studies, Lahore.


    3. INTRODUCTION • Many studies have been conducted to discern the influence of secondary education on the learning abilities and performance of students pursuing higher education. • Some studies have compared local secondary education systems with internationally competitive systems. • In Pakistan much of the research conducted on Secondary education highlights the need to upgrade the curricula and make it globally competitive.

    4. INTRODUCTION (CONTD.) In Pakistan there are predominantly two secondary education systems • Local or intermediate education system • General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), also known as the Cambridge Examination system. • The former’s examination is certified by the local education board whereas the latter is an internationally recognized examination board. The aim of this study was: • To find out if the type of secondary educational route is a predictor of academic performance of BBA students at business schools of Lahore.

    5. LITERATURE REVIEW • A lot of research in the field of educational psychology has been conducted to understand the myriad predictors of academic success in higher education. • One such area of interest is “Secondary Education” • Usher(2008) reports that secondary academic achievement had a strong association with participation in bachelors level study.

    6. LITERATURE REVIEW(CONTD.) • Huws & Taylor (2009), found that students with A levels background tended to demonstrate higher academic performance as compared to those with a national diploma. • Peers & Johnston (1994) discovered that there was a small but significant relationship between A level education and university performance. • Reddy & Talcot (2006), Concluded that secondary education wasn’t a predictor of university performance

    7. LITERATURE REVIEW (CONTD.) • Muhammad (2007) Compared A levels curriculum with FSC (Science). It was concluded that the subjects aren’t competitive with the global education system and need to be upgraded according to the current global standards. • AminRehmani (2003), reports that that intermediate examination is seen as burdensome by students. • In most of the researches, dealing with higher academic performance, the CGPA is used as a measure of success (J Brumbaugh et al, 2007). The present research also used CGPA as a measure of academic success

    8. LITERATURE REVIEW (CONTD.) Other studies have considered a variety of variables as predictors of higher academic success: • SAT scores (Kruck, S. E. and Lending, Diane, 2003), • Self-efficacy(Bandura,1997; Multon, Brown, & Lent, 1991), • Intrinsic motivation (Schunk, 1994; Zimmerman, 1994) • Self-regulation(Schunk, 1994; Zimmerman, 1994) • Social support (Cutrona, et al, 1994).

    9. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Independent Variable: Secondary Education type (Intermediate or GCSE) Dependent Variable Higher Education Performance (CGPA SCORE) Intervening Variables: (Self efficacy, social support, intrinsic motivation, assignments, attendance, class participation ,exams etc.)

    10. Hypothesis • Null hypothesis: Ho: The A-levels and intermediate backgrounds do not have any relationship with academic performance of BBA students. • Alternative Hypothesis Ha: A levels students have a relatively higher academic performance compared to intermediate students, in a BBA programme.

    11. METHODOLOGY • Sample size: 192 BBA students from 3 business schools of Lahore. 64 from each school (equal number of GSCE and Inter students). • Sampling method: Simple random sampling • Schools selected: ICBS, COMSATS and University of Lahore. • Institutional codes: ABC, XYZ and DEF for I.C.B.S, COMSATS and UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, respectively. • Instrument: Questionnaire • Instrument reliability: Test-Retest method with 100% score. • Instrument validity: Content Validity method was used. • Data analysis technique: Independent t-test was used to compare mean CGPA scores. • Data software used: SPSS • Nature of study: This was a cross-sectional research.

    12. Questionnaire Institution: ABC Q1. What is your degree program? BBA(honors) BBA Q2. What type of secondary education did you undertake? Intermediate GSCE (Alevels) Q3. Were your final secondary exams administered by the board of secondary education or The British Council? British Council Secondary Board. Q4. What is your current CGPA? (On a four point scale) __________

    13. RESULTS T-test score: Independent t-test score with a 95% confidence interval showed a statically significant difference of 6.766.

    14. DISCUSSION & RECOMMENDATION • The null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. • Our study shows that, on average, students with GCSE background performed better than students with intermediate background, while studying in BBA programs at the three business schools of Lahore. • It is recommended that business institutions introduce measures that may eliminate this apparent disparity caused by the educational background of the students.

    15. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY • This study was focused on BBA students studying at business schools of Lahore only. The results might not be applicable to the students enrolled in other disciplines and studying in other cities. • Academic records of the participants were inaccessible, so there was no way to cross-check and verify their CGPA scores. • It was a cross-sectional study that spanned three months. A longitudinal study might produce different results.

    16. RECOMMENDATIONS: FUTURE STUDIES • It is recommended that for future studies: 1. A longitudinal research should be carried out to check how CGPA scores vary over time in both groups. 2. Assess if the results are similar for other disciplines 3. Assess if the results are similar for masters level students.

    17. REFERENCES • AminRehmani (2003) Impact of public examination system on teaching and learning in Pakistan. ANTRIEP Journal: New Delhi Vol. 8, No 1. • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman. • Cutrona, C. E., Cole, V., Colangelo, N., Assouline, S. G., & Russell, D. W. (1994). Perceived parental social support and academic achievement: An attachment theory perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 369–378. • Huws, N., Reddy, P., & Talcott, J. (2006). Predicting university success in psychology: are subject-specific skills important? Psychology Learning and Teaching, 5, 35 -42. • JessahBrumbaugh, Rebecca Lepsik, & ChaceOlinger (2007). The Relationship between GPA and Perfectionism (Huntington University). Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences Volume 6 –2007 • Kruck, S. E. and Lending, Diane. (2003). Predicting Academic Performance in an Introductory College-Level IS Course. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 21 (2), 9-15. • Multon, K. D., Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A Meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 30–38. • NaeemUllah, Muhammad (2007). Comparative study of curricula, teaching methodology and examination system of GCE (A-level) andF.SC. level in basic sciences. PhD thesis, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi.  • NiaHuws and Liz Taylor (2009).University performance of learners from vocational versus traditional backgrounds in Equine and Animal Studies. Nottingham Trent University. • Peers, I. S., & Johnston, M. (1994). Influence of learning context on the relationship between A level attainment and final degree performance: a meta – analytical review. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 64, 1-18. • Schunk, D. H. (1994). Self-regulation of self-efficacy and attributions in academic settings. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational applications (pp. 75–99). Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. • Scott Ussher (2008) Post-school choices: How well does academic achievement predict the tertiary education choices of school leavers? Available online at • Zimmerman, B. J. (1994). Dimensions of academic self-regulation: A conceptual framework for education. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational applications (pp. 3–21). Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.