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MYCOLOGY -. STUDY OF MOLDS (FILAMENTOUS ORGANISMS) AND YEASTS (SINGLE CELLS WHICH PRODUCE PROGENY BY BUDDING, USUALLY ) EUKARYOTES , PRIMITIVE PLANTS, 5-10 μM DIAMETER 30 MEGA BASE PAIR GENOMES; SEVERAL CHROMOSOMES; 5,000 GENES

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slide1

MYCOLOGY -

  • STUDY OF MOLDS (FILAMENTOUS ORGANISMS) AND YEASTS (SINGLE CELLS WHICH PRODUCE PROGENY BY BUDDING, USUALLY)
  • EUKARYOTES, PRIMITIVE PLANTS, 5-10 μM DIAMETER
  • 30 MEGA BASE PAIR GENOMES; SEVERAL CHROMOSOMES; 5,000 GENES
  • CELL WALL WITH CHITIN (N-ACETYL GLUCOSEAMINE POLYSACCHARIDE),
  • ABSORPTIVE NUTRITION,
  • LACK CHLOROPHYLL, NO PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • FORM SPORES, NON-MOTILE,
  • TOLERATE DRYNESS, HIGH OSMOTIC PRESSURE,
  • ACID AND ALKALINE ENVIRONMENTS
  • SAPROPHYTES - DECAY DEAD CREATURES (& PERMIT
  • RECYLCING) - RELEASE HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES WHICH DIGEST EXTERNAL FOOD
slide2

MOLDS -

  • LONG, BRANCHED FILAMENTS - HYPHAE
  • COENOCYTIC - NO PERPENDICULAR CROSS WALLS
  • SEPTATE - WITH CROSS WALLS WITH PORES
  • GROW BY EXTENSION, BRANCHING
  • MYCELIUM - MASS OF HYPHAE - COLONY
  • SPORES - DORMANT, CAN GERMINATE
  • YEASTS -
  • UNICELLULAR, SINGLE NUCLEUS, BUD PROGENY
  • (USUALLY)
  • DIMORPHIC FUNGI - SOME WHICH CAUSE DISEASE -
  • YEAST FORM IN THE ANIMAL, FILAMENTOUS FORM ON
  • CULTURE MEDIA
slide3

REPRODUCTION

  • ASEXUAL - MITOSIS FOLLOWED BY:
  • TRANSVERSE CELL WALL FORMATION FORMING TWO EQUAL DAUGHTER CELLS BINARY FISSION
  • BUDDING FORMING MOTHER CELL AND NEW BUD
  • TRANSVERSE CELL WALL FORMATION FORMING SPORES WITHIN
  • A HYPHA OR AT THE END
  • SEXUAL –
  • HOMOTHALLIC - SELF-FERTILIZING, COMPATIBLE GAMETES ON
  • THE SAME MYCELIUM
  • HETEROTHALLIC - CROSSING BETWEEN DIFFERENT BUT
  • COMPATIBLE MYCELIA. HAPLOID GAMETES FUSE; DIPLOID
  • GAMETES; MEIOSIS, HAPLOID SPORES
slide4

ZYGOMYCETES

  • COENOCYTIC - HAPLOID NUCLEI, HYPHA
  • RHIZOIDS EXTEND DOWN INTO SUBSTRATE, ABSORB NUTRIENTS
  • STOLONS - ERECT HYPHAE, FORM SPORANGIA WITH BLACK
  • SPORANGIOSPORES
  • E.G., COMMON BLACK BREAD MOLD: RHIZOPUS NIGRICANS
  • ASCOMYCETES
  • SEPTATE HYPHAE, CONIDIOSPORES AT END OF CONIDIOPHORE
  • ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS -
  • UBIQUITOUS - HOMES, ALLERGIC REACTIONS, ASTHMA, SINUSITIS,
  • OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN ESPECIALLY IN HIV+ PEOPLE
  • ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS - AFLATOXINS
  • PENICILLIUM NOTATUM - FIRST PENICILLIN
  • PENICILLIUM ROQUEFORTI – CHEESE SOFTENING/RIPENING
  • CLAVICEPS PURPUREA - ERGOT OF RYE – PLANT DISEASE
  • ERGOTISM IN PEOPLE - ERGOT TOXIN - CONTAINS LYSERGIC ACID-
  • USED TO SYNTHESIZE LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE -LSD
  • VASOCONSTRICTION - GANGRENE, AMPUTATIONS
  • NEUROTRANSMISSION - SEVERE BURNING SENSATION;
  • HALLUCINATIONS, CONVULSIONS, DEATH
  • COMMON – EUROPE – MIDDLE AGES
slide5

BASIDIOMYCETES

  • MUSHROOMS - DIPLOID HYPHAE GROWING IN SOIL
  • ASSEMBLE TO PUSH THROUGH SOIL;
  • FORM CAP UNDER WHICH BASIDIOSPORES DEVELOP
  • EDIBLE, BUT MUSHROOM POISONING
slide6

Rhizopusnigricans– Pin-head mold

SPORANGIA

STOLON

GERMINATING

SPORE

AERIAL

HYPHA

HYPHA

ABSORBING

HYPHA

RHIZOID

slide7

SPORANGIOSPORES IN SACS (SPORANGIA)

SPORES

Rhizopus nigricans

slide9

Penicilliumnotatum

CONIDIOSPORES AT ENDS OF CONIDIOPHORES

slide10

Penicillium

roqueforti

CONIDIOSPORES AT ENDS OF CONIDIOPHORES

slide11

ROQUEFORT CHEESE

BLUE-GREEN CONIDIOSPORES OF Penicilliumroqueforti

slide12

APPRECIATE !

LIFE OF A MUSHROOM

NOT ASSIGNED

slide13

MYCOSES - FUNGAL INFECTIONS

I. DERMATOPHYTES – FUNGI ON, IN, UNDER SKIN, HAIR, NAILS

A. SUPERFICIAL - ON OUTER SURFACES SKIN, HAIR, NAILS

- TROPICS – SOAP AND WATER

B. CUTANEOUS - WITHIN SKIN, HAIR, NAILS

- RINGWORM (TRICHOPHYTON, OTHERS)

- ATHLETE’S FOOT

C. SUBCUTANEOUS

- INTRODUCED THROUGH SKIN

(PUNCTURE WOUNDS)

- SPREAD ALONG LYMPH CHANNELS

slide14

FIG 39.13 CUTANEOUS MYCOSIS

RINGWORM (TRICHOPHYTON)

p 1009

slide15

FIG 39.17 SUBCUTANEOUS MYCOSIS

CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS (BLACK MOLDS, PHIALOPHORA)

p 1010

slide16

II. SYSTEMIC INFECTIONS - INTERNAL

A. HISTOPLASMOSIS - HISTOPLASMA CAPSULATUM

DIMORPHIC

MILD RESPIRATORY INFECTION - HEALTHY PEOPLE RECOVER

WITHOUT KNOWING THEY HAD DISEASE

ENDEMIC - OHIO RIVER VALLEY

SEVERE DISEASE IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED

B. COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS - COCCIDIODES IMMITIS

DESERT FEVER - 95% MILD RESPIRATORY

5% TB-LIKE

FEW: DISSEMINATES TOBRAIN, BONES,

JOINTS, MENINGES

DIMORPHIC

C. CRYPTOCOCCOSIS – CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS

RESPIRATORY TRACT > CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

MENINGITIS - INFLAMMATION OF MENINGES

D. PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA – PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII

PNEUMONIA IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED

slide18

14

Pneumocystis cariniiPNEUMONIA

slide19

III. TREATMENT OF SYSTEMIC FUNGAL INFECTIONS –

AMPHOTERICIN B - DISRUPTS MEMBRANE FUNCTION, TOXIC FOR

PEOPLE

FLUCONAZOLE - PROPHYLACTIC IN AIDS PATIENTSINHIBITS STEROL

SYNTHESIS, AND THEREFORENORMAL MEMBRANE FUNCTION

IV. MYCOTOXINS -

  ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS– AFLATOXINS

slide20

V. CANDIDIASIS - THRUSH, MONILIASIS, WHITE PATCHES OF MOUTH,

TONGUE, VAGINA

CANDIDA ALBICANS - NORMAL FLORA YEAST

C. ALBICANS FLOURISHES:

IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PEOPLE,

IN NORMAL HEALTH FOLK WHEN THEIR BACTERIAL FLORA

IS DESTROYED - PROLONGED ANTIBIOTIC WHICH

DESTROY PROKARYOTES

VAGINITIS - DIABETES, ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES,

ESPECIALLY DURING PREGNANCY

DIAPER RASH

TREATMENT - TOPICAL

NYSTATIN - STREPTOMYCES ANTIBIOTIC, DAMAGES

MEMBRANE, CYTOPLASM LEAKAGE

MICONAZOLE - ANTIBIOTIC, DAMAGES MEMBRANE,

DISRUPTS STEROLS SYNTHESIS

slide21

CANDIDA ALBICANS

ORAL THRUSH