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Modifying Risk and Protective Factors . What can I do as a school-based health provider?.

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Modifying Risk and

Protective Factors

what can i do as a school based health provider
What can I do as a school-based health provider?
  • In the context of an established relationship with a child/adolescent and his/her family, health and other professionals can intervene to reduce risk factors and increase protective factors for the youth they serve.
not all factors can be modified
Not all factors can be “modified”
  • Not all risk or protective factors are directly modifiable.
  • School-based health providers cannot change the fact that a child has a family history of a mental health disorder. However, even those factors that are not modifiable might be appropriate for related interventions.
  • If a child presents with a family history of a mental health problem it might be possible to:
    • provide affected family members with mental health treatment information
    • educate the child about his or her risk for having the mental health disorder
    • build child’s coping skills to deal with a family member’s mental health disorder
intervention strategies example student with depression augmenting protective factors
Intervention Strategies:Example – Student with DepressionAugmenting Protective Factors:
  • Community: Interventions were targeted toward...
    • 1. ... building social support
  • School: Interventions were targeted toward.
    • 4…. working with student in school-based education/ intervention program

Intervention Strategies:Example – Student with DepressionAugmenting Protective Factors:

  • Family: Interventions were targeted toward...
    • 2. ... strengthening ties between family members
    • 3. ... increasing parental support

Intervention Strategies:Example – Student with DepressionAugmenting Protective Factors:

  • Individual/Peer: Interventions were targeted toward...
    • 5. ... building internal locus of control
    • 6. ... education re: healthy diet/good health practices
    • 7. ... building a more positive self-appraisal
    • 8. ... increasing social self-efficacy
the asset framework
The Asset Framework
  • Administer the Assets checklist with students during intake.
  • Problem solve with them on areas that could be improved that are not presently in place.
  • Pick two of these a week to enhance.
things you can do to increase assets
  • Encourage student to participate in extracurricular activities
  • Empower parents to be actively involved in child’s schooling, to set clear rules and consequences, and to monitor child’s whereabouts
  • Increase student’s commitment to learning: encourage reading for pleasure, schedule homework, increase connection to school
  • Train student in critical skills: Peaceful conflict resolution, Planning and decision making, Interpersonal competence, Resistance skills
  • Act as a positive adult in student’s life and identify other positive adults to support student
the power of positive adult relationships
The Power of Positive Adult Relationships
  • The Ad Health study (Resnick et al. 1997) emphasizes that positive adult relationships powerfully shape the life trajectories of youth in a positive direction.
  • Are you smiling at, encouraging, developing positive relationships with youth in the school?
life trajectories in treatment planning brief intervention
Life Trajectories in Treatment Planning/Brief Intervention
  • Draw a timeline with the beginning representing birth and the middle representing now (e.g., age 15).
  • From the middle line to top right corner draw one line, and to bottom right corner draw another. Have students (individually or in groups present their “dream life” at top right, and worst it could be at bottom right).
life trajectories in treatment planning brief intervention1
Life Trajectories in Treatment Planning/Brief Intervention
  • Have them present strategies to go to the top right (e.g., study, come to school on time, avoid negative peers) and strategies that will push them to the bottom right (e.g., skipping school, using drugs). Write these on the paper along the appropriate lines. Ask students to list risk/stress factors that push them toward bottom right, and protective factors that push them toward the top right.
  • Write these on the paper.
life trajectory
Life Trajectory

Best life could be/goal

List protective factors

Birth Age 15

List risk factors

Worst life could be

life trajectories and adolescent mental health mark weist 12 04 csmha@psych umaryland edu

Life Trajectories and Adolescent Mental HealthMark Weist, 12.04,

Great wife, kids, job, house, car

Jail, sickness, addiction, death

role play
Role Play
  • Pair up with a partner. Each will have the opportunity to be a student and a provider.
  • Administer an assessment tool.
  • Conduct a Life Trajectory Exercise.
school community level
School/community level…
  • Focus group/Survey
  • Analysis of school/community data
focus group survey
Focus group/Survey
  • Stakeholders (e.g., students, family, teachers) should provide their perspectives on:
    • the most significant stressors encountered by youth in the community,
    • the most common emotional and behavioral problems presented by youth in the school,
    • the types, availability, and ease of access to social, health, mental health, and other programs (e.g., recreational),
    • how mental health services should be delivered in the school, and
    • other frequently accessed resources to support students
school community data
School/Community Data
  • Socio-demographic data obtained from the school or school district can assist in identifying general stress and risk factors for students
    • Community:
      • number of children in poverty, uninsured, on probation
      • community crime statistics
school community data1
School/Community Data
  • School:
    • truancy rates
    • percentage of students receiving free and reduced lunch
    • percentage of English Language Learners
    • percentage of mobility
    • achievement scores
    • grades
    • staff turnover and satisfaction reports
    • retention rates
    • number of special education students and patterns of special education reviews
  • You are the focus group – Identify the most salient risk factors for youth in your schools/communities.
  • What protective factors are in place to buffer students from these risks?
  • What protective factors need to be implemented?
  • What, if any, role does your SBHC have in reducing these risks?