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Remote Sensing of Water

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  1. Remote Sensing of Water • Cryosphere and MRR Update • Spectral Properties of Water • Measuring Chlorophyll Content • Sea Surface Temperature • ENSO Discussion For Next Class: Read Chapter 12 (pp. 428-435)

  2. Cryosphere Update • http://arctic.atmos.uiuc.edu/cryosphere/ • http://ice-glaces.ec.gc.ca/App/WsvPageDsp.cfm?ID=1&Lang=eng

  3. Absorption and Scattering Attenuation in Pure Water Scattering in the water column is important in the violet, dark blue, and light blue portions of the spectrum (400 - 500 nm). This is the reason water appears blue to our eyes. The graph truncates the absorption data in the ultraviolet and in the yellow through near-infrared regions because the attenuation is so great. Jensen, 2000

  4. Water Penetration Cozumel Island Palancar Reef Caribbean Sea SPOT Band 1 (0.5 - 0.59 mm) green SPOT Band 2 (0.61 - 0.68 mm) red SPOT Band 3 (0.79 - 0.89 mm) NIR Jensen, 2000

  5. Percent reflectance of clear and algae-laden water based on in situ spectroradiometer measurement. Note the strong chlorophyll a absorption of blue light between 400 and 500 nm and strong chlorophyll a absorption of red light at approximately 675 nm Percent Reflectance Percent reflectance of algae-laden water with various concentrations of suspended sediment ranging from 0 - 500 mg/l Percent Reflectance Han, 1997; Jensen, 2000

  6. Global Chlorophyll a (g/m3) Derived from SeaWiFS Imagery Obtained from September 3, 1997 through December 31, 1997 Jensen, 2000

  7. Chlorophyll a distribution on September 30, 1997 derived from SeaWiFS data True-color SeaWiFS image of the Eastern U.S. on September 30, 1997 Jensen, 2000

  8. Sea-surface Temperature (SST) Maps Derived from A Three-day Composite of NOAA AVHRR Infrared Data Centered on March 4, 1999 Adjusted to highlight nearshore temperature differences Adjusted to highlight Gulf Stream temperature differences Jensen, 2000

  9. Composite Sea-surface Temperature (SST) Map of the Southeastern Bight Derived from AVHRR Data Jensen, 2000

  10. Worldwide Sea-surface Temperature (SST) Map Derived From NOAA-14 AVHRR Data Three-day composite of thermal infrared data centered on March 4, 1999. Each pixel was allocated the highest surface temperature that occurred during the three days. Jensen, 2000

  11. Reynolds Monthly Sea-surface Temperature (˚C) Maps Derived from In situ Buoy and Remotely Sensed Data La Niña December, 1988 Normal December, 1990 El Niño December, 1997 Jensen, 2000

  12. ENSO Animations • http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/precip/CWlink/MJO/enso.shtml • http://nsipp.gsfc.nasa.gov/enso/visualizations/

  13. El Niño (Warm Phase ENSO)

  14. 1997 e-mail from Anton Seimon in Peru

  15. ENSO Links • http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/enso_update/sstanim.shtml • http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/enso_advisory/ensodisc.html • http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2009/20091015_winteroutlook.html

  16. 1982-83 El Niño 1997-98 El Niño 1998-99 La Niña