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Elements of a Short Story: Terms. (Review: Plot, Characters) Point of View, Symbol, Irony, Foreshadowing, Flashback. Plot. The chain of related events that take place in a story. The plot of a short story centers around conflict. Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces.

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elements of a short story terms

Elements of a Short Story: Terms

(Review: Plot, Characters)

Point of View, Symbol, Irony, Foreshadowing, Flashback

slide2
Plot
  • The chain of related events that take place in a story.
  • The plot of a short story centers around conflict. Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces.
  • Complications build the reader’s excitement.
slide3
Plot at a Glance

climax

falling action

rising action

resolution

exposition

slide4
Exposition-
  • gives the background of the story
  • Rising Action-
  • introduces complications; builds suspense
  • Climax-
  • the turning point of the story
  • suspense reaches its peak
  • Falling Action-
      • the events and complications begin to resolve themselves
  • Resolution-
      • the final outcome or untangling of events in the story, usually ties up loose ends
slide5
Types of Characters
  • Main or Minor
  • Protagonist or Antagonist
  • Round or Flat
  • Dynamic or Static
  • *Stereotypes=Stock Characters*
character
Character:
  • Protagonist: Clearly central to the story with all major events having some importance to this character
  • Antagonist: The opposer of the main character
methods of characterization creating believable characters
Indirect

physical appearance

speech, thoughts, feelings, or actions of the character

The speech, thoughts, feelings, or actions of other characters about that character

Direct

the narrator’s direct comments about a character

Methods of CharacterizationCreating Believable Characters
round vs flat
Round vs. Flat

Round:

  • Complex, three dimensional, multiple aspects…a varied, complete, portrait of a person-usually more realistic and believable
  • May change/grow during the story

Flat:

  • Usually only one or two traits, stereotypical, simplistic characters-often stereotypes
  • Never change in the story, despite what happens to them
dynamic vs static
Dynamic vs. Static

Dynamic:

A round character that CHANGES during the course of the story due to some event, obstacle, conflict or plot device

(Think: dynamite changes things:)

Static:

A round or flat character that does not change during the course of the story, despite the conflict or plot…

(Think: stays the same)

slide10
Point of Viewor . . .

(Who’s telling this story anyway?)

-the vantage point from which the story is told.

-determines how much we, the readers, know about the characters.

slide11
1st Person
  • Narrator is a character in the story.
  • Narrator uses first-person pronouns, I, me, my, we, us, our to refer to himself or herself.
  • Narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of one character and speaks directly to reader.
slide12
3rd Person Limited
  • Narrator does not participate in action of story.
  • Narrator does not refer to himself or herself. Third person pronouns used (he, she, they, them)
  • Narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of one character, but readers are able to maintain some emotional distance from the character.
slide13
3rd Person Omniscient
  • (All-knowing)
  • Narrator does not participate in action of story.
  • Narrator does not refer to himself or herself. Third person pronouns used (he, she, they, them)
  • Narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all/many characters; readers get insight into several characters.
slide15
A symbol is a person, a place, an activity, or an object that stands for something beyond itself.
irony
Irony

The contrast between what is expected….

and what is real

3 kinds of irony
3 Kinds of Irony:
  • Verbal Irony: Writer says one thing…but means another

(Think: sarcasm)

  • Situational Irony: What we expect to happen is contradictory to what really happens

(Think: Surprise!!!)

3. Dramatic Irony: When the audience (reader) knows something important that a character doesn’t

(Think: I know Juliet isn’t really dead, but Romeo doesn’t…)

foreshadowing
Foreshadowing:
  • Hints or clues of what is to come in a story
  • It is a method often used to build suspense
  • Think: shadows of what that will happen that come before it actually happens
flashback
Flashback:
  • A reference to an event that takes place prior to the beginning of the story
  • Think: flashing back to something that happened earlier
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