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Unit 4 Source of Personal Well-Being. By: Cicilia Evi GradDiplSc ., M. Psi. The Sources. Understanding the sources is an important step in constructing action plans and exploring strategies for its attainment Biopsychosocial sources: Biological and Constitutional Factors

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Unit 4 Source of Personal Well-Being

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unit 4 source of personal well being

Unit 4 Source of Personal Well-Being

By: CiciliaEviGradDiplSc., M. Psi

the sources
The Sources
  • Understanding the sources is an important step in constructing action plans and exploring strategies for its attainment
  • Biopsychosocial sources:
    • Biological and Constitutional Factors
    • Early Parenting Experiences
    • Emotional Intelligence
    • Loving Relationship
biological and constitutional factors
Biological and Constitutional Factors
  • Thomas & Chess (1977)  biologically individual differences among babies: activity, emotion, ability to self-regulate  can also be modulated by environment
  • 3 types: easy, difficult, slow to warm up
  • Twin studies  highly similar in various measurement of personality, incld subjective well-being (Diener & Lucas, 1999)
biological and constitutional 2
Biological and Constitutional … (2)
  • McCrae & Costa (1990)  5 personality traits
  • Neuroticism  negative emotions
  • Extraversion  preference for relating to others
  • Openness to experience
  • Agreeableness
  • Conscientiousness
early parenting experiences
Early Parenting Experiences
  • Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation (1978)
  • John Bowlby’s Attachment Theory (1982)
    • Secure  solid relationship, free to explore
    • Anxious-ambivalent  no consistent care
    • Avoidant  rejecting and unresponsive
  • Hazan & Shaver (1987, 2004)  links between early attachment styles with primary caregivers and later romantic relationships
emotional intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
  • Peter Sallovey then popularized by Daniel Goleman
  • Defined as “abilities such as being able to motivate oneself and persist in the face of frustrations; to control impulse and delay gratifications; to regulate one’s moods and keep distress from swamping the ability to think; to empathize and to hope” (Goleman, 1994, p. 34)
emotional intelligence 2
Emotional Intelligence (2)
  • Four key elements:
    • self awareness: knowledge of one’s emotions, strengths, limitations and value system
    • Self-management: ability to control disruptive emotions and impulse
    • Social awareness: ability to empathize with others
    • Relationship management: ability to cultivate and maintain a web of relationships, resolve interpersonal conflict, work positively and collaboratively with other people
loving relationships
Loving Relationships
  • Married individuals  live longer, survive health problems and less prone to serious mental health problems
  • Need to affiliate is a basic human need  from the moment of birth and throughout our lives
  • We are largely shaped by our relationships with close others
sternberg s triangular theory of love
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love


Passion Commitment

loving relationships 2
Loving Relationships (2)
  • Relationship maintenance  mechanism by which partners conserve, protect and enhance the health of their important relationships, once those relationships have achieved some degree of closeness – is essential to the longevity of a relationship (Reis & Rusbult, 2004)
loving relationships 3
Loving Relationships (3)
  • Self-disclosure and partner responsiveness  elements in development of intimacy
  • Reveal personal information, thoughts and feelings to their loved ones
  • Happy couples have a wealth of positive thoughts and feelings toward one another (Gottman, 1999)  reflected in their daily interactions and serves to protect them in times of conflict
why is it important
Why is it important?
  • Because the emotional climate in the organizations and the opportunities provided for growth and engagement will affect overall levels of satisfaction and personal well-being
emotional climate and group cohesion
Emotional Climate and Group Cohesion
  • Sense of belonging and commitment to the group, enjoy spending time with other group members, and less likely to suffer from stress related to social and interpersonal factors  enthusiastic about the group and its work, have + expectations
  • Cohesion creates a healthier work environment  individual can thrive
emotional climate and group cohesion 2
Emotional Climate and Group Cohesion (2)
  • Group dynamics  stages:
    • Storming  conflict is unpleasant, but needed as required ingredients for group cohesion
    • Forming  disagreement can be expressed and conflict can be resolved
    • Norming  sufficiently mature to reach optimal level of productivity
  • Feelings are contagious  a toxic environment at work  spillover effect into family life
opportunities for growth engagement and self determination
Opportunities for Growth, Engagement, and Self-Determination
  • Features of work that correlate with personal well-being (Warr, 1999):
    • Opportunities for personal control : make decision, autonomy, and freedom of choice
    • Not being trusted and work at micromanaged system  getting low when boss isn’t around
  • Engaged workers  report happy feeling while on the job, because it is important for them and report much higher of overall life satisfaction
the intersection of work and family
The Intersection of Work and Family
  • Disengaged workers  much more likely to have a spillover of stress and unhappiness from their work life to home life
  • Role enhancement perspective  multiple roles are advantageous
  • Role strain perspective  difficulty to meet the requirements of every role
  • Poverty is a problem  not the working parents
why is it important1
Why Is It Important?
  • Social factors can create stress strong enough to undermine the foundation of resilience laid early in life through attachment and bonding
  • On the other hand, enabling environments and social propitious can help to undo negative sequels of a tough childhood (Ungar, 2005)
social gradient
Social Gradient
  • Not just about absolute poverty  but also relative deprivation  when you have physiological and security needs met, but you feel inferior or less, compare to others
  • Impact of social status on well-being is big
  • What if you’re on the lower step of social ladder?
  • Extended exposure to conflict and stress can create permanent physiological and psychological damage
  • More vulnerable to wide range of health problems  infections, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, depression and aggression (Wilkinson & Marmot, 2003)
early life
Early Life
  • Basic emotional and organic needs in early life has a paramount importance
  • Reduction of risk factors + enhancement of protective factors = family and social priority
  • Resilience starts in the womb (Ungar, 2005)
social exclusion
Social Exclusion
  • Due to disability, race, gender, class or immigrant status  excluded from the mainstream of the society
  • Prolonged exposure to exclusion diminishes self-worth and health
  • Physical environment can also feel excluding and isolating
  • Coronary heart disease  has a lot to do with working conditions and especially with level of control
  • Control at work is determined by a number of factors: position, climate, seniority, age, race and gender
job security
Job Security
  • Alleviates worries and provide a meaningful identity for many, occupational stress and all
  • Unemployment is a major source of anxiety, depression and low self-image, not to mention economic instability and downright poverty (Frey & Stutzer, 2002; Fryer, 1998)
social support
Social Support
  • Has been found to have direct effects on well-being and indirect effects as a buffer against stress
  • Inviting VS isolating environments  defined by many factors: numbers of friends, shops, transportations system, street life
  • People turn to tobacco and alcohol to numb the pain of isolation and deprivation  deepens their problems
  • Reflect social gradient  lower class shows much higher number of addictions
  • Malnutrition VS obesity epidemic
  • Environmental influences such as subsidies for corn, culture, prices and community characteristics – interact with personal preferences
  • Mode of transportation contributes to either pollution or clean air
  • Car-driven society  single-occupancy vehicles