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  1. Contents 1.  Mechanismsof ultrafast light-matter interaction A.  Dipole interaction B.  Displaciveexcitationofphonons C.  Impulsive stimulated Raman andBrillouinscattering D.  ScatteringandDiffraction 2.  Ultrafast optical-frequencymethods A.  Ellipsometry B.  Broadband techniques C.  Harmonicgeneration D.  Fluorescence E.  2-D Spectroscopies 3.  THz-frequencymethods A.  Mid-IR andTHzinteractionswithsolids B.  Differencefrequencymixing C.  Optical rectification 4.  Ultrafast VUV and x-rayfrequencymethods A.  Photoemissionspectroscopy B.  X-rayabsorptionspectroscopies C. Coherentimaging D.  X-raydiffraction 5.  Electronbasedmethods A.  Ultrafast electrondiffraction B.  Electronspectroscopies

  2. Time scales in solid statephysics Opticalcommunication Magnetic recording High harmonic generation Micro electronics Ti: Saphire lasers 10ns 1ns 100fs 10fs 1fs 100ps 10ps 1ps Latticevibrations Ferromagnetic resonance Ultrafast demagnetization Excitation of an atom Recombination of Electron hole pairs Thermali-zation

  3. tp<1 ps te < 0.1ps tel ~ 1 ps Electrons Phonons Tsl ~ 100 ps? Tes = ? ts Spin The solid and its excitations

  4. tp<1 ps te < 0.1ps tel ~ 1 ps Electrons Phonons Tsl ~ 100 ps? Tes = ? ts Spin The solid and its excitations

  5. Fast light source Slow detector Fast detector or fast source Slow light source Fast detector

  6. pump & probe technique: stroboscopic, needs repeatable process! time base pump adjustable delay No cats were harmed in our experiments! probe Courtesy of A. Kirilyuk, U Delft

  7. Pump-Probe techniques