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Daily Focus

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  1. Daily Focus • If you were a parent and one of your children ran away, what would you do once the child had been returned? Would you punish the child? Would you accept an apology with the promise that they’d never run away again? What ground rules would you lay down with the child? • Respond to this in 3-4 sentences on the back of page 24 of your SSS.

  2. RECONSTRUCTION(1865-1877) Period during which the US began to rebuild after the Civil War; process used by federal gov’t to readmit the Confederate States to the Union

  3. PROBLEMS • Had to rebuild everything: politics, society, and the economy in the South • Deal with issues that caused the Civil War • Lincoln, Johnson, and Congress had different ideas on how reconstruction should be handled

  4. Lincoln’s Plan • Preserve the Union—lenient policy • Higher Cause • Forgiving peace • “with malice toward none, with charity for all” • Amnesty (forgiveness) to most • 10% must take oath—swear allegiance • Little mention of former slaves

  5. RADICAL PLAN • Radical Republicans led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner want to destroy power of former slave owners • Wade-Davis Bill of 1864—(harsher plan, martial law, majority takes oath, bars leaders) proposed Congress do reconstruction, Lincoln vetoed the bill

  6. Lincoln Assassinated • April 15, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth • Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes President • Tried to follow Lincoln’s plan with stricter additions (wanted to deal with leaders of CSA more harshly) • Congress refuses plan • South tries to reorganize under Lincoln’s plan

  7. Radical Republicans Punish rebels by taking land Replace existing political leaders Demand that states meet strict requirements to be readmitted Provide assistance to African-Americans Use military to maintain control and enforce new laws Civil Rights Act of 1866: grants full citizenship to all people born in the United States Reconstruction Act of 1867: military rule of the South, protect former slaves, bans former leaders Chance to create a more “perfect” union Passes the 13th and 14 amendments Congress should pass laws giving some land to freedmen and build schools for them President Johnson Accept verbal pledges of loyalty Require existing leaders to seek pardons from Congress Expedite the readmission process by emphasizing rejection of secession and slavery Allow states to decide on what type of assistance to give African Americans Give leniency towards the south to heal the nation’s wounds Vetoes the Civil Rights Act of 1866 For states to be readmitted—call a convention and write a new constitution, repeal secession, cancel all Confederate debts, and ratify the 13th amendment African-Americans should not be guaranteed the right to vote Plans for Reconstruction

  8. Southern Politics • Black codes—informal code of conduct that governed blacks allowing whites to maintain control and denied blacks rights • Many of the same leaders elected • The North saw little change in the South—leading more to favor Congress’ plan

  9. Congress refuses to admit new Southern delegates Johnson’s plan comes to a standstill after he vetoes 2 bills Passes Civil Rights Act of 1866 over presidential veto (1st ever)—race riots in the South contributed to support for this! 14th amendment—all persons entitled to equal protection of the law Riots led to Radicals gaining control of Congress in 1866 Country wants to see change! Power Struggle

  10. RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION • Reconstruction Act: did not recognize Southern states under Lincoln or Johnson’s plan, divided South into 5 military districts, new state constitutions would be drafted, had to ratify the 14th amendment, and banned former leaders • When all requirements are met, then states could apply for readmission!

  11. New Government • Scalawags: white Southerners who joined the Republican party • Carpetbaggers: Northerners who moved South • African-Americans can vote, black leaders are elected at local and state levels (Hiram Revels—1st African American Senator)

  12. Johnson Impeached • Johnson fights with Radicals and they in turn seek a reason to impeach him • Tenure of Office Act is passed: can not remove cabinet appointments during the term of the president by who they may have been appointed • Johnson tests legality—fires Secretary of War (appointed by Lincoln) • Johnson is impeached, but acquitted (found not guilty)

  13. GRANT ELECTED • Johnson serves out term with no real effect on policy • General Grant (war hero) nominated and easily wins • 15th amendment—no man can be kept from voting based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude

  14. What group wanted to punish the South for the Civil War? • Radical Republicans • Democrats • Know-Nothings • Whigs

  15. What idea stated the slavery can’t exist if there are no laws to support it? • Popular soveriengty • Freeport Doctrine • Manifest Destiny • Monroe Doctrine

  16. Which of the following is NOT part of Congress’ plan for reconstruction • Majority must take oath • Martial law in the South • Banned former Confederate leaders • Blacks could not vote

  17. Why was President Johnson impeached? • Violation of the Tenure of Office Act • Using Lincoln’s Plan • Vetoing too many bills • Being too harsh on the North

  18. Which statement best describes African-American involvement in politics during Reconstruction? • They held offices in local, state, and federal gov’t • They held some offices at the local level • They held no elected offices • They held a majority in most state legislatures

  19. How did President Johnson anger the Radical Republicans? • He vetoed bills and didn’t follow their plan for reconstruction • He favored the North • He only would follow Lincoln’s plan • None of the above

  20. Reconstruction Plan Flip-Chart • This will be worth 2 Homework Grades, so do your best! • Be creative and colorful! • Include at least 4 pictures • Front: main title at bottom, 1st: Lincoln’s Plan, 2nd: Johnson’s Plan, 3rd: Radical Republicans • Inside: • Top Half—outlining what the plan was and what were the goals of the plan (at least 4 bullets each) • Bottom Half—outline what happened to the plan, to the person, and what programs/acts/amendments were created