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Basic Teaching Methods in Physics and Social Science Classroom. Reality and upper secondary school students’ expectations. Jari Lavonen 1 , Carl Angel 2 , Reijo Byman 1 , Ellen Henriksen 2 and Ismo Koponen 1 1 University of Helsinki, Finland, 2 University of Oslo, Norway.

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basic teaching methods in physics and social science classroom

Basic Teaching Methods in Physics and Social Science Classroom

Reality and upper secondary school students’ expectations

Jari Lavonen1, Carl Angel2, Reijo Byman1, Ellen Henriksen2 and Ismo Koponen1

1University of Helsinki, Finland, 2University of Oslo, Norway

what might affect on motivation to study science
What might affect on motivation to study science?
  • Typically, answers are searched by investigating pupils’ interests or attitudes to
    • 1 science (or domains of science) generally,
    • 2 to school science subjects,
    • 3 to studying science subjects or teaching methods used
  • (Woolnough, 1994, Hoffman, 2002)

E S E R A 2003

e l deci r m ryan according to motivaation theory
E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan: According to Motivaation theory …
  • Students will learn if they are interested to learn (topic and teaching method)
  • continuum: external motivation – intrinsic m. (≈ interest)
  • It is possible to have an influence on students’ motivation for example by:- wake up students curiosity (topic and method)- support students’ feeling of autonomy
  • There are several attributes that have an influence on students motivation: genre, workload, easiness, …

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research questions
Research questions

The purpose of the study was to determine

1. What is the students’ (physics as their specialisation subject) opinion about how often different teaching methods (categorised by the nature of social interaction) are used and should be used in physics classroom?

2. What kind of background variables (gender, nationality, student orientation to physics or social sciences and subject easiness, interestingness, …) explain how the students wish to study the subject they have selected as their specialisation subject?

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method and sample
Method and sample
  • In Norway a paper questionnaires and in Finland a web based questionnaire were used.
  • A letter was send to headmasters of all upper secondary schools and they were asked to organise a survey at the second year of upper secondary school for 10 students in beginning of alphabetical list.
  • Altogether 1349 response in Finland and 1487 in Norway were received

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teaching method
Teaching method
  • “Teaching method” (Joyce and Weil 1996: 7)
  • is a ‘synonym’ to learning or instructional method, model, strategy or classroom practice,
  • help students to acquire new concepts, ways of thinking, behaving, … and skills.
  • include goal orientation and emphasise social interaction

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teaching methods
Teaching methods …
  • can be classified from the point of view of social interaction: teacher leading – small group – individual working
  • are discussed during teacher education from several point of view : goals and teaching methodsmotivation and teaching methods -> why to use versatile teaching methods?

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how often teaching methods are used now in physics

Norway, now

Finland, now

2= 52.5***

2= 17.2**

2= 14.4**

How often teaching methods are used now in physics

Teacher presents new materialon the blackboard

Teacher presents problems

Work on problems/tasks individually

Teacher leads discussion

Teacher uses students' ideas

Work on problems in small groups

Project work in small groups

Discuss problems in small groups

0 %

20 %

40 %

60 %

80 %

100 %

(nFIN = 398, nNOR = 173)

sometimes

never

rarely

often

daily

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how often teaching methods should be used in physics fin

Finland, wish

Finland, now

Z = -3.8**

Z = -2.9**

Z = 9.2*’*

Z = 9.9*’*

Z = 9.7*’*

Z = 5.8*’*

Z = 11.9*’*

How often teaching methods should be used in physics (FIN)

Teacher presents new materialon the blackboard

Teacher presents problems

Work on problems/tasks individually

Teacher leads discussion

Teacher uses students' ideas

Work on problems in small groups

Project work in small groups

Discuss problems in small groups

0 %

20 %

40 %

60 %

80 %

100 %

(nFIN = 398)

sometimes

never

rarely

often

daily

E S E R A 2003

how often teaching methods should be used in physics n

Norway, now

Norway, wish

Z = -3.5**

Z = -3.1**

Z = 6.7*’*

Z = 8.7*’*

Z = 7.8*’*

Z = 7.5**’*

Z = 9.5*’*

How often teaching methods should be used in physics (N)

Teacher presents new materialon the blackboard

Teacher presents problems

Work on problems/tasks individually

Teacher leads discussion

Teacher uses students' ideas

Work on problems in small groups

Project work in small groups

Discuss problems in small groups

0 %

20 %

40 %

60 %

80 %

100 %

(nNOR = 173)

sometimes

never

rarely

often

daily

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teaching methods in social science n fin

How it is

Wish (social sci)

How it is in Phys

Teaching methods in Social Science (N & FIN)

Teacher presents new materialon the blackboard

Teacher presents examples/problems

Work on problems/tasks individually

Teacher leads discussion

Teacher uses students' ideas

Work on tasks in small groups

Project work in small groups

Discuss tasks in small groups

0 %

20 %

40 %

60 %

80 %

100 %

(nSos.Sci = 629)

sometimes

never

rarely

often

daily

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groupping teaching methods by factor analysis

1

2

3

4

F1:

Studying in small groups

F1I1:

W

ork with problems/tasks

in small groups

.

774

Promax with Kaiser Normalization -Rotated factor loading matrix for Maximum Likelihood Factoring calculated for items measuring students' (n = 1216) opinions about how they wish to study during their lessons in Physics or Social sciences.

F1I2:

D

iscuss about difficult

concepts

in small

group

.198

.624

F1I3:

H

ave project work

in small groups

-

.105

.614

F2:

Teacher presentation

F2I1:

A

teacher present

/solve problems

.66

8

F2I2:

A

teacher present

new material

-

.107

.144

.3

62

F3:

Teach

er leading discussion

F3I1: A

teacher leads

discussion about

concepts

.677

F4:

Individual studying

F4I1:

W

ork with problems/tasks

individually

.5

13

Groupping teaching methods by factor analysis

Component loadings

% of total variance

21.9

9.2

6.1

2.

7

E S E R A 2003

background variables

Physics

Social science

Background variables

Subject workload (1=small)

Quality of instruction (1=poor)

Subject interestingness (1=uninteresting)

Subject easiness (1=very easy)

0 %

20 %

40 %

60 %

80 %

100 %

(nPhys = 570, nSos.Sci = 629)

1

2

3

4

5

E S E R A 2003

slide14

Variables explaining how students wish to study

Studying

in

Teacher

Teacher

Individual

small groups

presentation

leading

studying

discussion

1)

1)

1)

1)

b

b

b

b

t

t

t

t

Specialisation subject

.31

0

9.

6

***

-

.31

8

-

9.

7

***

.3

17

9.6***

-

.2

81

-

8.4

***

(1 =phys, 2 =soc.sc.)

ns

Nationality

-

.11

4

-

3,.

7

.1

18

3.9***

.05

5

1.

8

.06

5

2.

1

*

***

(

1=Norwegian, 2=Finnish)

ns

ns

ns

Subject interestingness

-

.00

6

-

.

18

.02

2

.

61

.11

1

3.

0

**

.0

17

.

46

(1=uninterestin

g)

ns

ns

ns

Student sex (1=girl, 2=boy)

-

.03

2

-

1.1

-

.037

-

1.2

-

.038

-

1.2

-

.09

5

-

3.0**

ns

ns

ns

Quality of instruction (1= poor)

-

.07

5

-

2.5*

-

.00

4

-

.

13

.02

1

.7

0

-

.01

3

-

.

41

ns

ns

ns

0

74

Workload of the subject

.02

8

.

9

7

.

2.

6*

*

-

.01

1

-

.

38

.0

30

1.0

(1= small)

ns

ns

ns

ns

Subject easiness (1= difficult)

-

.

0

25

-

.

82

-

.0

35

-

1.2

-

.0

41

-

1.

3

-

.0

2

5

-

.

79

R

.37

.35

.3

1

.27

2

R

.14

.12

.10

.07

F

2

7.3

***

2

3.7

***

1

9

.

5

***

1

3

.

2

***

ns

p > 0,05, * p < 0,05, ** p < 0,01, *** p < 0,001

1)

E S E R A 2003

conclusions and implications 1
Conclusions and Implications 1
  • It is typical that in Physics teacher present new material or solve problems on the blackboard. This is also students’ wish.
  • The students would like to discuss more about concepts and problems as well as work with them in small groups. The teacher should support autonomy!
  • The differences between Finnish and Norwegian students are dealing with how students work with problems: in Finland teacher should present or solve problems - in Norway the students like to work individually

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conclusions and implications 2
Conclusions and Implications 2
  • Student gender as well as other predictors,exceptnationality and subject of specialisation, explain only littleabout students wishes how they like to study their specialisation subject.
  • The students preferred more versatile teaching methods than it is in present used and, therefore, the teacher should also think about models when (s)he plan instruction

E S E R A 2003