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STEMasters Energy Module 4-H Electric Excitement Project Guides 4-H Power of the Wind CSU Clean Energy Curriculum
Outline of the day: AM What is 4-H Science? Mini lesson - What is energy and how do we use it? 4-H Electricity curriculum for youth PM Looking at Clean and Renewable Energy Power of the Wind Wired for Wind Clean Energy curriculum overview Wrap up and questions
Goals of our day: • Become familiar with some basic concepts related to energy and more ideas related to into electricity, wind and clean energy sources • Become familiar with 4-H materials that will help kids learn about these topics • Try out and troubleshoot activities that you can do with students • Learn about a variety of resources that can help you teach about energy/electricity/wind • What else?
What is 4-H Science? To address increased demand for science and technology professionals, 4-H is working to reach a bold goal of engaging one million new young people in science programs by 2013.
4-H Science Checklist • Science, engineering and technology programs based on National Science Education Standards • Providing children and youth opportunities to improve their SET Abilities • Providing opportunities for youth to experience the Essential Elements of Positive Youth Development • Learning experiences led by trained, caring adult staff and volunteers acting as mentors, coaches, facilitators and co-learners • An experiential approach to learning • Using inquiry to foster the natural creativity and curiosity of youth? • Frequency and duration to accomplish these outcomes.
Energy Primer http://www.eia.gov/kids/energy.cfm?page=about_home-basics http://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy01/30927.pdf What is energy? Energy is the ability to do work: • work is the application of a force through a distance (e.g., carrying yourself and a loaded backpack up a mountain trail), • force is that which can put matter into motion or stop it if it is already moving ( e.g. you are stopped at a stop sign, the car behind you doesn't see you stop, and can't stop before hitting your rear bumper, pushing you into the intersection), • motion is a change in distance or direction with time (e.g., making a right hand turn).
Energy Forms POTENTIAL ENERGY: Stored energy – the energy of position, structure or composition Energy Form Energy Due To Example Chemical Kind and arrangement of small Flashlight battery particles Nuclear Structure of atom's nucleus Atomic energy KINETIC ENERGY: The energy of motion Energy Form Energy Due To Example Heat Random motion of Warmth from car's engine small particles Sound Ordered periodic motion of Sound from headphones small particles Radiant Bundles of photons Sunlight Mechanical Motion of matter Movement of car's wheels or air
Basic Laws of Energy Energy is not created or destroyed, it just changes form. When energy changes form, some of it changes into a less useful form (usually heat)
Energy sources can be classified as renewable or nonrenewable: RenewableNonrenewable 1. Sun 1. coal 2. Water 2. natural gas 3. wood 3. petroleum 4. Wind 4. nuclear fission 5. biomass 6. geothermal 7. ocean tides
HOW IS ELECTRICITY MADE? One of the fossil fuels (usually coal) is burned in a power plant to heat water. The hot water turns into steam which forces a machine called a turbine to turn. The turbine powers a generator which changes mechanical energy into electricity which is sent through power lines to provide energy for buildings of all types. In summary, coal -hot water -steam -turbine -generator -electricity. Electricity can also be made from water behind a dam or by windmills. Falling water or rotating windmill blades will cause the turbine to generate electricity. Really, the key to producing electricity is to get a turbine to rotate.
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT NOT TO WASTE ELECTRICITY? The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed, it can only be changed from one form to another. This change, however, is one of quantity, not quality. As energy does work, it changes from higher (more concentrated) form of energy to a lower form of energy. For example, of the electricity that goes into a typical light bulb, 5% becomes light, the other 95% of the electrical energy is lost as heat. In another example, the chemical energy of gasoline is converted into heat energy in an automobile. A small portion (10%) is converted into the mechanical energy that moves the car. The remaining portion (90%) is lost to the environment. This concept helps explain why it is important to save (conserve) energy.
Let’ s take a QUIZ! http://www.eia.gov/kids/energy.cfm?page=quiz Write down the letter you think is the answer . We’ll see how many more you know the answer to by the end of the day.
4-H Electric Excitement Book 1 – Magic of Electricity Ages 9-11 (Grades 4-5) Book 2 – Investigating Electricity Ages 11-13 (Grades 6-7) Book 3 – Wired for Power Ages 13-16 (Grades 8-9) Book 4 – Electronics Ages 16-18 (Grades 10-12) Electric Group Helper’s Guide
Making a flashlight Experience Using a piece of aluminum foil, a light and a battery, make a flashlight. How many ways can you get the light to light? How many ways do not light up the light? In your Electrician’s Notebook, make drawings of 1 or 2 arrangements that work and 1 or 2 that do not.
Share What did you need to make the flashlight light up? Process What was the most important thing you learned? Generalize Can you think of any situations where knowing what you just learned will be useful? Apply How will you use what you learned in your electricity project?? Hooray!! It’s the……..
Who knew? • The Scientific Method can be Fun! • Question • Research • Hypothesis • Experiment • Collect data/Record results • Think about/Analyze results • Draw a conclusion • Communicate results
Electricity Vocabulary Current = number of electrons flowing past a point over a period of time. 6.28X1018 Think of cars per hour through a toll gate Measured in amperes or amps Voltage = the push (force) that moves the electrons Measured in volts Resistance = resistance to the flow of electrons, either atoms not wanting to give up electrons or by collisions between electrons flowing through a small space (like very thin wire) which generates heat and/or light Measured in ohms
Series and Parallel Circuits Series: Components in a series circuit share the same current: ITotal = I1 = I2 = . . . In Total resistance in a series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual resistances: RTotal = R1 + R2 + . . . Rn Total voltage in a series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual voltage drops: ETotal = E1 + E2 + . . . En Lights get dimmer as you add more in a series circuit. Parallel Components in a parallel circuit share the same voltage: ETotal = E1 = E2 = . . . En Total resistance in a parallel circuit is less than any of the individual resistances: RTotal = 1 / (1/R1 + 1/R2 + . . . 1/Rn) Total current in a parallel circuit is equal to the sum of the individual branch currents: ITotal = I1 + I2 + . . . In. Lights stay the same as you add more in a parallel circuit.
4-H Science, Engineering and Technology Abilities Build/Construct Model/Graph/Use Numbers Categorize/Order/Classify Observe Collaborate Optimize Collect Data Organize/Order/Classify Communicate/Demonstrate Plan Investigations Compare/Contrast Predict Design Solutions Problem Solve Develop Solutions Question Draw/Design Redesign Evaluate Research a Problem Hypothesize State a Problem Invent/Implement Solutions Summarize Infer Test Interpret/Analyze/Reason Troubleshoot Measure Use Tools
Ohms Law I=V/R Current = voltage divided by resistance V = I x r Voltage = current times resistance R= V/I Resistance = Voltage divided by current The math on p 13 3V, 1000 ohms per light 1 light = 3/1000 = .003 amps = 3 milliamps 2 lights = 3/2000 - .0015 amps = 1.5 milliamps
4-H Skilathon You can use as an assessment or as a learning activity. Ours is a learning activity. Go to each station and do the activity. Record results in your notebook. Write down any questions you have. What are some of the process skills youth would use in this activity? How can you be sure that they are getting chances to practice these?
4-H Skilathon • Sense the Current • Building a galvanometer • Circuit Symbols • Use the symbols to draw a circuit • Then make the circuit with your materials • Check to be sure your battery is drawn correctly.(+,-) • Measuring voltage in series and parallel circuits • Predict what voltage you will find in each place. • Then use the directions to measure voltage in • series and parallel circuits
How Does a Battery Work? http://www.explainthatstuff.com/batteries.html The positive and negative electrodes are separated by the chemical electrolyte, either a liquid, but more likely a dry powder. When you connect the battery, chemical reactions start happening. One of the reactions generates positive ions (yellow blobs) and electrons (brown blobs) at the negative electrode. The positive ions flow through the electrolyte to the positive electrode and the electrons flow around the outside circuit (blue line) to the positive electrode. As the battery generates power, the chemicals inside it are gradually converted into different chemicals. Their ability to generate power decreases, the battery's voltage slowly falls, and the battery eventually runs flat.
What is a Watt? A watt is a measure of electrical power voltage X current Watts is the rate of use at this instant. Watt-hours is the total energy used over time. Watts show how hungry a device is for power. (e.g., 100-watt bulb is twice as hungry as a 50-watt bulb.) Watt-hours show how much electricity is used over a period of time, usually an hour. Watt-hours/1000 = kwh
4-H Power of the Wind If you could create something new powered by wind, what would it be?
What is Wind? • Wind power comes from air in motion. Wind itself is not • really a category of energy. • Wind is caused by the uneven heating of the earth’s • surface by the sun. • The earth’s surface heats unevenly because different types • of land and water surfaces at different elevations absorb the sun at different rates. • Warm air, which weighs less than cold air, rises. Then cool • air moves in and replaces the rising warm air. This movement of air is what makes the wind blow. • Wind can be thought of as a way that the atmosphere • moves excess heat, moving excess heat either away from the surface of the Earth, (see above), or from warm regions to cooler regions. • Wind moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low • pressure.
The Engineering Design Process STEP 1: What is the challenge? STEP 2: How have others solved this? STEP 3: What are the design criteria and constraints? Brainstorm possible solutions. STEP 4: Which of the possible solutions do you choose? STEP 5: Build a prototype. STEP 6: How does it work? Try it and test again. STEP 7: How do you learn from the designs of others? STEP 8: How can you use your new ideas to improve your design?
Revisiting the Experiential Learning Process Experience is the opportunity to interact with the content. What? (Share ) Talking about what you did and discovered explores a deeper meaning of the content. There is no right or wrong answer; just whatever the person thought happened. “So What? (Process and Generalize) gets into what does this mean? Why is what you saw important? “Now What ? Apply So now what are you going to do with this information, how is it going to help you, your life, and/or your community?
Power from the wind • Power in the wind • Effect of air density, • (1-1.2) • Effect of swept area, A • Effect of wind speed, V Power in the Wind = ½ρAV3 R How can we use this equation to maximize the energy production from wind?
Doubling wind speed means POWER will increase…. 1. Twofold 2.Fourfold 3. Sixfold 4.Eightfold Doubling blade length means POWER will increase….. 1. Twofold 2.Fourfold 3. Sixfold 4.Eightfold
Blade Area Remember: P= ½ρAV3 5 foot vs. a 10 foot blade length A= pi x Radius²3.14 x 25 = 78.5 sf 3.14 x 100 = 314 sf
Do and Teach Pick an activity: Lift a Load Which Turbine is Better? Using Wind Power to Produce Electricity You will have about 25 minutes to do the activity and prepare a 5 minute lesson for the group.
Motors and Generators Think about one of our toy motors… If we connect it to a battery, it turns and makes something move. It changes chemical energy to electrical energy to motion It’s a motor! If we turn the axle with our fingers, a coil of wire turns between magnets and electric current is produced. This is changing mechanical energy to electrical energy. It’s a generator! A wind turbine is part of a generator system where wind does the turning.
Where is the Wind, Where are the Wind Farms, What Schools have Wind Turbines?
Wired for Wind 2011 National Youth Science Day Youth design and build their own wind turbines, Experiment with blade pitch and Map a potential wind farm site in their state
CSU Colorado Clean Energy Curriculum http://www.ext.colostate.edu/ energy/k12.html
Quiz Time http://www.eia.gov/kids/energy.cfm?page=quiz
Questions? Comments ? Please feel free to contact me if I can be of any help! Christy Fitzpatrick Northern Regional Extension Specialist - 4-H STEM CSU Northeast Regional Engagement Center 304 Main St. Sterling, CO 80751 (970) 522-7207 Fax: (970) 491-4429 Cell: 207-532-1739 email@example.com
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