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Gross Techniques In Surgical Pathology. Introduction. The routine work associated with a surgical pathology specimen includes gross & microscopic examinations. Gross examinations give an idea about size ,shape of specimen &any gross abnormality like ulceration, nodularity.

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introduction
Introduction

The routine work associated with a surgical pathology specimen includes gross & microscopic examinations.

Gross examinations give an idea about size ,shape of specimen &any gross abnormality like ulceration, nodularity.

The dissection, gross description &selection of sections for microscopic study is a crucial part of pathologic examinations

preparations of sections for histopathology
Preparations of sections for histopathology

1- paraffin embedding method ( the routine & widely used procedure).

2- frozen section (intra-operative).

3- cytological diagnosis (exfoliative & fine needle aspiration cytology.

4- digital pathology & telepathology.

paraffin embedding method
Paraffin embedding method

Include the following principle steps:

1- fixation:- to preserve the tissue, fixatives include formaldehyde, Zenker’s solution, picric acid, Bouin’s solution,

The best fixative is 10% buffered formalin

advantages of formalin
Advantages of Formalin

1- cheep.

2- always available.

3- good penetration into tissue.

4- cause little shrinkage.

5- preserve RBCs & fatty tissue.

6- special stains can be used on tissues fixed with it.

7- preserve color of the tissue.

8- good hardening.

disadvantages of formalin
Disadvantages of Formalin

1- if tissue preserved in formalin for long time, formic acid will be formed which affect stainability of tissue with different stains, so it should be changed every 3-6 months.

2- when formalin solution is stored for long period a white precipitate of para formaldehyde which will not affect the efficiency of formalin as a fixative & can be removed by alcohol.

3- cannot preserve glycogen.

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2- Dehydration:- by using different concentrations of alcohol.

3- Clearing:- by using xyline.

4- Paraffin impregnation.

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5- Embedding:- to make the tissue as a block of hard paraffin

6- Sectioning:- by using a microtome, the tissue is sliced into very thin sections ranging from 4-6 micrometer in thickness.

7- Attaching sections to the slides.

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8- Deparaffinization:- by using xylol & alcohol until the paraffin is dissolved.

9- Staining:- the standard staining method is H & E which stain the nucleus blue (basophilic) & the cytoplasm pink-red (acidophilic).

10- Mounting:- by using DPX &cover slip.

special techniques in surgical pathology
Special Techniques In Surgical Pathology

1- Special stains like PAS (periodic acid schiff) stain, Gram, Giemsa, Ziel-Neelson.

2- Enzyme histochemistry.

3- Tissue culturing.

4- Histometry.

5- X-ray microanalysis.

6- Electron microscopy.

7- Immunohistochemistry, sensitive &specific.

8- Flow cytometry.

9- Cytogenetics.

10- Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).