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Organisms and their Essential Life Functions Goal 4. Viruses and Bacteria Page 51. Viruses . Viruses are considered nonliving particles. Viruses does not carry out reproduction until in a living cell( host ). Obtaining Food= they are parasites .

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Viruses are considered nonliving particles.

Viruses does not carry out reproduction until in a living cell(host).

Obtaining Food= they are parasites.

Reproduction= Asexual reproduction through Replication.

Not made of a cell or cells.


Moneran Kingdom- Bacteria.

Eubacteria Kingdom- consist of all bacteria in normal conditions.

Archaebacteria Kingdom- consist of bacteria in harsh conditions such as septic systems, hot springs and salty water.

Reproduction- Sexually by Conjugation; Asexually through Binary Fission.

protists pages 59 64

Pages 59-64


Pg. 59 Amoeba

1. Kingdom- Protista (Protists)

2. Obtaining Food: heterotrophs- feed on bacteria by using pseudopods (false feet)

3. Body is shapeless.

4. Gas Exchange: Diffusion using the plasma membrane.

5. Lives in water: Aquatic

6. Reproduction: Asexual by Binary Fission.

7. Unicellular: eukaryotic cell= has organelles.

8. Digestion: happens in the food vacuole by enzymes.

page 60

Page 60


Kingdom: Protista (Protists)

Obtaining Food: uses cilia to bring food to its oral groove.

Live in water. (aquatic)

Digestion: happens in the gullet by use of enzymes.

Waste: Excretion by use of anal pore

Reproduction; Asexual by Binary Fission.

Gas Exchange: Diffusion by using plasma membrane: O2 in and CO2 out.

page 61

Page 61


Kingdom: Protista

Eyespot: used to detect light.

When light is present, it acts as an autotroph (carries out photosynthesis); when light is not present, it acts as a heterotroph.

Gas Exchange: Diffusion through the plasma membrane.

Has Mitochondria: synthesis its own ATP by respiration.

Unicellular: Eukaryotic cell (has nucleus)

page 62

Page 62

Algae- Volvox

1. Kingdom- Protista

Autotroph: carries out photosynthesis.

Reproduction- Fragmentation- asexual; produces clones; each little piece becomes a new organism.

Gas Exchange: CO2 in and O2 out

All algae is protist made of eukaryotic cells; some unicellular and some multicellular.




page 63

Page 63

Fungus-like Protists

(Slime molds and Water Molds)

Heterotrophs- saprophytes

Multicellular- no chitin in cell wall.

True fungi have chitin in cell wall.

Reproduction- Asexual called sporulation.

page 64

Page 64

Concept Map on Protists

Animal-like Protists are called protozoans.

Zooflagellates swim with a flagellum.

Sarcodines use pseodopods (false feet).

Ciliates use cilia (hair-like projections).

Sporozoans live in a host… fish, birds humans etc. They reproduce by spores.

Plant-like Protists are called Algae.

They exist in a wide variety of sizes and colors.

Contain chlorophyll; can conduct photosynthesis.

Six groups of algae: Diatoms, Dinoflagellates, Euglenoids, Red Algae, Brown Algae, Green Algae.

page 65

Page 65

Mushrooms- Fungi Kingdom

A mushroom carries out asexual reproduction called sporulation- each spore is a clone of the parent.

Mushrooms are heterotrophs- release enzymes over dead plant material- food is liquified and absorbed into mushroom’s body.

Mushrooms are saprophytes- food source is dead or dying plant material.

page 66

Page 66

Yeast- Fungi Kingdom

Asexual reproduction: called budding.

Important in alcohol fermentation. (produces two ATP and CO2)

Used in baking bread; release CO2 which causes bread to rise.

Draw Yeast

page 661

Page 66

Lichens= Fungi Kingdom

Lichens are a symbiotic relationship between algae and fungus.

a. Fungus provides protection, water and minerals.

b. Algae carries out photosynthesis to provide food for both.

Lichens are major producers in the Tundra Biome.

Lichens grow on rocks and break them apart to provide fertile soil.

They are good indicators of air pollution.

page 67

Page 67


Xylem transport H2O to all cells.

Phloem transports sugar (glucose) to all cells.

Guard Cells opens and closes stomata.

Palisade Mesophyll= where the majority of photosynthesis happens.

Transpiration (H2O moves out) happens at stomata.

Vascular Bundle= contains Xylem and Phloem.

page 671

Page 67


A seed carries the embryo; embryo formed by sexual reproduction known as pollination which occurs in flowering plants called angiosperms.

Seed is compared to the uterus of a female because both carry the embryo.

For a seed to germinate when placed in the soil, conditions must be favorable; H2O; O2; temperature (warm); Earthworms help increase O2 in the soil by turning it over as they crawl

page 68

Page 68

The Flower

Male reproductive parts are: .amen, anther and filament, the anther produces pollen and pollen carries the sperm cell.

Female reproductive parts are: pistil, stigma, styleand the ovary. Pollen lands on the stigma and sperm cells are carried to the ovary by the pollen tube. When the ovary is fertilized you get a fruit in the end. No flower – no fruit.

page 69

Page 69


Part of the male gametophyte grow through the pistil to reach the female gametophyte in flowering plants.

Double fertilization involves two sperm nuclei.

A zygote (2n) and endosperm (3n) are formed.

how guard cells work using turgor pressure
How Guard Cells Work Using Turgor Pressure

Do book drawing and write information in picture.

Page 70

page 71

Page 71

Process of Fruit Formation

All vegetables are fruit to a scientist because they are formed from a flower.

When the eggs in the ovules of a blueberry flower have been fertilized, the petals, stamen and stigma wither and fall away.

The wall of the blueberry flower’s ovarybecomes fleshy as the seeds develop.

The remains of the sepals and some dried stamens usually can be seen at the top of a blueberry fruit.

page 72
page 72

Understanding Roots

Apical Meristem= high rate of mitosis (new body cells)

Xylem= transport H2O and minerals.

Phloem= transports sugar (glucose)

Xylem and Phloem in plants compare to arteries and veins in animal transport.

page 73
Page 73

Plant Responses

*** Plant Responses are controlled by Hormones called Auxins.***

  • Thigmotropism= plants touch object and vines wrap around object.
  • Phototropism= plants bend toward light or sunlight.
  • Geotropism or Gravitropism= roots grow down and stems grow up.
    • Positive Geotropism= roots always grow down.
    • Negative Geotropism= stems grow upward.
page 731
Page 73

Nastic Movement= venus flytrap leaves fold around insect that lands on it; traps the insect and it dies- juices of dead insect used by plant.

(Pictures to be drawn for each)

page 74
page 74

Plant Responses of Flowering Plants= Photoperiodism

Many plants are day-neutral. Flowering in cucumbers, tomatoes, and corn is not influenced by a dark period.

Spinach and lettuce are long-day plants that flower in midsummer.

Short-day plants include pansies and goldenrod.

(Pictures to be drawn for each)

page 75
Page 75

Gastrula (Horseshoe Shape)

*** Differentiation= cells begin to specialize (1 specific job)

Endoderm= inner cells that form the animals digestive tract and organs.

Ectoderm= outer cells that form skin and nervous system.

Mesoderm= middle cells form muscles, circulatory system, excretory system, and respiratory system.

Stages of Development: Fertilized Egg →zygote → blastula → Gastrula → Embryo → Fetus

page 76
Page 76

Sponge= Invertebrate, Asymmetry, Sessile (no locomotion), Filter feeder, Phylum Porifera

Protection= needle-like structures called spicules.

Obtaining nutrients= ocean water enters pores bringing in food and food is caught.

Excretion= uses a large pore called an Asculum.

Reproduction= Asexual called fragmentation.

They are hermaphrodite= carry male and female sex organs.

page 77
Page 77

Hydra- Cnidarian, Invertebrate, Sessile, Radial Symmetry, Phylum Cnidaria

Some have Asexual Reproduction called Budding.

Nutrition= captures food by using tentacles and brings in its mouth.

All Cnidarians have radial symmetry and live in the water. Ex. Jelly Fish, Corals, Sea Anemones

Protection= stings and uses cells called nematocysts.

Jellyfish= sexual reproduction (External Fertilization; External Development)

Digestion in gastrovascular cavity

page 78
Page 78

The Planarian- Flatworms: Invertebrate, Bilateral Symmetry, Phylum Platyhelminthes

Asexual Reproduction called regeneration.

Nutrition= sucks up its food by using a pharynx out of its mouth (feeds on slow moving organisms) or dead organisms.

Locomotion= use cilia (tiny hairs)

Habitat= lies under rocks in streams, Eyespot picks up light.

Excretion= waste removal out of mouth. Only one body opening.

Other Flatworms= tapeworms (parasites), fluke (parasite found in rice patties).

Very simple nervous system: nerve cord

page 79 3 slides
Page 79- 3 slides

Mollusks- Invertebrate; Aquatic;

Phylum Molluska

3 Major Classes= Food for Humans

A. Snail

1. Snail: Class Gastropoda

2.Locomotion with large muscular foot.

3.Nutrition: uses a radula; a tongue with teeth to bring in food.

4. Mantle produces the shell.

5. Snails have well defined, well developed head in addition to a large foot.

Draw Snail

page 79 slide 2
Page 79- slide 2
  • Squid
    • Squid= Class Cephalopod.
    • Uses ink spray to escape predators.
    • Octopus is a cephalopod also.
    • Open circulatory system: where blood leaves out of arteries and veins and fill up an open space around organs.

Draw Squid

page 79 slide 3
Page 79- slide 3
  • Clam
    • Clam- Bivalve; class Pelecypoda
    • Two shells cover a soft body.
    • Other bivalve include oysters and scallops.

Draw Clam

page 80
Page 80

Earthworm+= Order Annelida;

Phylum Oligochaeta; Invertebrate, Bilateral Symmetry; Hermaphrodite

Gizzard= grinds soil; acts as teeth.

Locomotion: setae and muscles.

Closed Circulatory System: blood stays in arteries and veins.

Sexual Reproduction: Hermaphrodite; external development; capsule carries fertilized egg and falls into soil.

Excretion: Nitrogenous waste leaves out of anus. The nephridia removes waste from blood stream.

page 801
Page 80

Nutrition: Food enters the mouth; moves into the crop and then into the gizzard for digestion to be completed.

Gas Exchange: O2 enters and CO2 moves out by use of the skin (diffusion)- lives in moist soil.

page 81
Page 81

Grasshopper- Invertebrate; Phylum Arthropoda; Class Insecta.

1. Insects= 6 Legs, 3 Body Sections, Wings, Closed Circulatory System, Internal Fertilization- External Development.

Excretory= uses malpighian tubules are used to remove nitrogenous waste known as uric acid (crystal formation)

Gas Exchange: O2 enters the spiracles and goes down tracheal tubes to enter bloodstream -CO2 moves out by spiracles.

4. Nutrition= chews food by using mandibles (eats grass, wheat) (next page)

page 811
Page 81

3 Body Segments: head, thorax and abdomen

Some insects can carry on parthenogenesis (cloning happening with an unfertilized egg) ex. Ants, wasps, bees.

Locomotion: Jointed Appendages and Wings.

Protection: Exoskeleton (hard outer covering made of chitin)

page 82
Page 82

Incomplete Metamorphosis

Draw and label as in the book Incomplete Metamorphosis.

Old Book- 774

New Book- 754

page 83
Page 83

The Characteristics of a Chordate

Chordates have a notochord; but Vertebrate Chordates only have a notochord when they are embryos. The notochord is replaced by backbone to protect spinal chord.

Chordates have muscle blocks (stacks of muscles).

Chordates have dorsal nerve fins.

Chordates have gill slits or did have gill slits in embryonic stage, also called pharyngeal pouches.

page 84
Page 84

Boney Fish

Locomotion by fins.

Gas Exchange: happens in gills: O2 enters from water and CO2 moves out. By diffusion.

Closed Circulatory System: heart has 2 chambers.

Reproduction: Sexual called spawning- external fertilization; female releases lots of eggs into water male swims over releasing sperm.

Kidney removes nitrogeneous waste out of bloodstream.

Swim Bladder: Controls depth fish swims.

Sense Organ: Lateral Line System detects changes in water.


3 Classes of Boney Fish:

A. Agnathans- jawless fish (Hagfish)

B. Chondrichthyes- Sharks, rays, (lots of cartilage)

C. Osteichthyes- Bony Fish- spot; trout, brim, etc


Lamprey Eel

page 85
Page 85

Amniotic Egg

Covered by a hard shell.

All birds, all reptiles, all monotremes lay the amniotic egg.

Internal fertilization.

Yolk= food sac supplies food to embryo.

Amnion= fluid that surrounds the embryo to protect it.

Allantois= place where nitrogeneous waste of embryo sent for storage.

Chorion= gas exchange; O2 in and CO2 out.

page 86
Page 86


Reptiles are vertebrates; Chordates

All reptiles have scaly skin.

Closed circulatory system: most have a 3-chambered heart; some have 4-chambered heart.

Internal Fertilization- lay fertilized amniotic egg on land.

Ectotherms- cold blooded.

Gas Exchange- lungs: (O2 in and CO2 out).

Nitrogenous waste removed out of bloodstream by kidneys.

page 87
Page 87


Amphibians are Vertebrates; Chordates; and Ectotherms.

They undergo metamorphosis (incomplete). Fertilized egg tadpole  adult frog (eggs laid in water)

Have thin, moist skin used for gas exchange and also uses their lungs.

Double Life: live on land and in water.

Closed circulatory system: 3-chambered heart.

Reproduction: sexual: external fertilization in water.

page 88
Page 88


Vertebrate, Chordate, Endotherm.

Have 4-chmbered heart: very efficient.

Heart keeps oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separated.

Breast-bone (sternum)- strong support for flight.

Sexual Reproduction; internal fertilization; female lays a fertilized amnioticegg.

Oxygenated blood have high level of O2. Deoxygenated blood has high level of CO2.

page 88 pg 2
Page 88 pg. 2

The Owl is nocturnal: circadian rhythm= (biological time clock based on 24-hours): metabolism low during day and high at night. They incubate an amniotic egg.

Draw owl head

Hawk= carnivore (Niche)= eats animals only

Dray Hawk

3. Red Bird= (State Bird); omnivore (niche): eats plants and animals.

Draw Red Bird

page 89 pt 1
Page 89 pt. 1


Mammals= All produce milk for their young. They are vertebrates, Chordates, 4-chambered heart, lungs, have hair, diaphragm muscle beneath lungs, endotherms, have glands that produce hormones, teeth that grind food.

Man- Primate; Placental mammal; have opposable thumb.

draw man

Kangaroo- Marsupial has pouch where young fetus develops.

draw kangaroo

Horse- Ungulate; has hoofs; Placental.

draw horseshoe

Anteater= Insectivora; eats insects; placental

draw anteater

Mouse= Rodentia= large incisors that gnaws food; placental mammal.

Draw Mouse

Duckbilled Platypus= Monotreme- lays amniotic egg.

Draw Duckbilled Platypus

Whale= Cetacean= lots of blubber; Placental.

Draw Whale

Fox= Carnivore; Placental Mammal.

Draw Fox

Bat= Chiroptera- can fly; placental mammal.

draw bat

Rabbit= Logomorpha- powerful hind legs for jumping; placental mammal.

draw rabbit

Armadillo= Edentata= toothless; placental mammal.

Draw Armadillo