Organisms and their Essential Life Functions Goal 4. Viruses and Bacteria Page 51. Viruses . Viruses are considered nonliving particles. Viruses does not carry out reproduction until in a living cell( host ). Obtaining Food= they are parasites .
Viruses are considered nonliving particles.
Viruses does not carry out reproduction until in a living cell(host).
Obtaining Food= they are parasites.
Reproduction= Asexual reproduction through Replication.
Not made of a cell or cells.
Eubacteria Kingdom- consist of all bacteria in normal conditions.
Archaebacteria Kingdom- consist of bacteria in harsh conditions such as septic systems, hot springs and salty water.
Reproduction- Sexually by Conjugation; Asexually through Binary Fission.
1. Kingdom- Protista (Protists)
2. Obtaining Food: heterotrophs- feed on bacteria by using pseudopods (false feet)
3. Body is shapeless.
4. Gas Exchange: Diffusion using the plasma membrane.
5. Lives in water: Aquatic
6. Reproduction: Asexual by Binary Fission.
7. Unicellular: eukaryotic cell= has organelles.
8. Digestion: happens in the food vacuole by enzymes.
Kingdom: Protista (Protists)
Obtaining Food: uses cilia to bring food to its oral groove.
Live in water. (aquatic)
Digestion: happens in the gullet by use of enzymes.
Waste: Excretion by use of anal pore
Reproduction; Asexual by Binary Fission.
Gas Exchange: Diffusion by using plasma membrane: O2 in and CO2 out.
Eyespot: used to detect light.
When light is present, it acts as an autotroph (carries out photosynthesis); when light is not present, it acts as a heterotroph.
Gas Exchange: Diffusion through the plasma membrane.
Has Mitochondria: synthesis its own ATP by respiration.
Unicellular: Eukaryotic cell (has nucleus)
1. Kingdom- Protista
Autotroph: carries out photosynthesis.
Reproduction- Fragmentation- asexual; produces clones; each little piece becomes a new organism.
Gas Exchange: CO2 in and O2 out
All algae is protist made of eukaryotic cells; some unicellular and some multicellular.
(Slime molds and Water Molds)
Multicellular- no chitin in cell wall.
True fungi have chitin in cell wall.
Reproduction- Asexual called sporulation.
Concept Map on Protists
Animal-like Protists are called protozoans.
Zooflagellates swim with a flagellum.
Sarcodines use pseodopods (false feet).
Ciliates use cilia (hair-like projections).
Sporozoans live in a host… fish, birds humans etc. They reproduce by spores.
Plant-like Protists are called Algae.
They exist in a wide variety of sizes and colors.
Contain chlorophyll; can conduct photosynthesis.
Six groups of algae: Diatoms, Dinoflagellates, Euglenoids, Red Algae, Brown Algae, Green Algae.
Mushrooms- Fungi Kingdom
A mushroom carries out asexual reproduction called sporulation- each spore is a clone of the parent.
Mushrooms are heterotrophs- release enzymes over dead plant material- food is liquified and absorbed into mushroom’s body.
Mushrooms are saprophytes- food source is dead or dying plant material.
Yeast- Fungi Kingdom
Asexual reproduction: called budding.
Important in alcohol fermentation. (produces two ATP and CO2)
Used in baking bread; release CO2 which causes bread to rise.
Lichens= Fungi Kingdom
Lichens are a symbiotic relationship between algae and fungus.
a. Fungus provides protection, water and minerals.
b. Algae carries out photosynthesis to provide food for both.
Lichens are major producers in the Tundra Biome.
Lichens grow on rocks and break them apart to provide fertile soil.
They are good indicators of air pollution.
Xylem transport H2O to all cells.
Phloem transports sugar (glucose) to all cells.
Guard Cells opens and closes stomata.
Palisade Mesophyll= where the majority of photosynthesis happens.
Transpiration (H2O moves out) happens at stomata.
Vascular Bundle= contains Xylem and Phloem.
A seed carries the embryo; embryo formed by sexual reproduction known as pollination which occurs in flowering plants called angiosperms.
Seed is compared to the uterus of a female because both carry the embryo.
For a seed to germinate when placed in the soil, conditions must be favorable; H2O; O2; temperature (warm); Earthworms help increase O2 in the soil by turning it over as they crawl
Male reproductive parts are: .amen, anther and filament, the anther produces pollen and pollen carries the sperm cell.
Female reproductive parts are: pistil, stigma, styleand the ovary. Pollen lands on the stigma and sperm cells are carried to the ovary by the pollen tube. When the ovary is fertilized you get a fruit in the end. No flower – no fruit.
Part of the male gametophyte grow through the pistil to reach the female gametophyte in flowering plants.
Double fertilization involves two sperm nuclei.
A zygote (2n) and endosperm (3n) are formed.
Do book drawing and write information in picture.
Process of Fruit Formation
All vegetables are fruit to a scientist because they are formed from a flower.
When the eggs in the ovules of a blueberry flower have been fertilized, the petals, stamen and stigma wither and fall away.
The wall of the blueberry flower’s ovarybecomes fleshy as the seeds develop.
The remains of the sepals and some dried stamens usually can be seen at the top of a blueberry fruit.
Apical Meristem= high rate of mitosis (new body cells)
Xylem= transport H2O and minerals.
Phloem= transports sugar (glucose)
Xylem and Phloem in plants compare to arteries and veins in animal transport.
*** Plant Responses are controlled by Hormones called Auxins.***
Nastic Movement= venus flytrap leaves fold around insect that lands on it; traps the insect and it dies- juices of dead insect used by plant.
(Pictures to be drawn for each)
Plant Responses of Flowering Plants= Photoperiodism
Many plants are day-neutral. Flowering in cucumbers, tomatoes, and corn is not influenced by a dark period.
Spinach and lettuce are long-day plants that flower in midsummer.
Short-day plants include pansies and goldenrod.
(Pictures to be drawn for each)
Gastrula (Horseshoe Shape)
*** Differentiation= cells begin to specialize (1 specific job)
Endoderm= inner cells that form the animals digestive tract and organs.
Ectoderm= outer cells that form skin and nervous system.
Mesoderm= middle cells form muscles, circulatory system, excretory system, and respiratory system.
Stages of Development: Fertilized Egg →zygote → blastula → Gastrula → Embryo → Fetus
Sponge= Invertebrate, Asymmetry, Sessile (no locomotion), Filter feeder, Phylum Porifera
Protection= needle-like structures called spicules.
Obtaining nutrients= ocean water enters pores bringing in food and food is caught.
Excretion= uses a large pore called an Asculum.
Reproduction= Asexual called fragmentation.
They are hermaphrodite= carry male and female sex organs.
Hydra- Cnidarian, Invertebrate, Sessile, Radial Symmetry, Phylum Cnidaria
Some have Asexual Reproduction called Budding.
Nutrition= captures food by using tentacles and brings in its mouth.
All Cnidarians have radial symmetry and live in the water. Ex. Jelly Fish, Corals, Sea Anemones
Protection= stings and uses cells called nematocysts.
Jellyfish= sexual reproduction (External Fertilization; External Development)
Digestion in gastrovascular cavity
The Planarian- Flatworms: Invertebrate, Bilateral Symmetry, Phylum Platyhelminthes
Asexual Reproduction called regeneration.
Nutrition= sucks up its food by using a pharynx out of its mouth (feeds on slow moving organisms) or dead organisms.
Locomotion= use cilia (tiny hairs)
Habitat= lies under rocks in streams, Eyespot picks up light.
Excretion= waste removal out of mouth. Only one body opening.
Other Flatworms= tapeworms (parasites), fluke (parasite found in rice patties).
Very simple nervous system: nerve cord
Mollusks- Invertebrate; Aquatic;
3 Major Classes= Food for Humans
1. Snail: Class Gastropoda
2.Locomotion with large muscular foot.
3.Nutrition: uses a radula; a tongue with teeth to bring in food.
4. Mantle produces the shell.
5. Snails have well defined, well developed head in addition to a large foot.
Earthworm+= Order Annelida;
Phylum Oligochaeta; Invertebrate, Bilateral Symmetry; Hermaphrodite
Gizzard= grinds soil; acts as teeth.
Locomotion: setae and muscles.
Closed Circulatory System: blood stays in arteries and veins.
Sexual Reproduction: Hermaphrodite; external development; capsule carries fertilized egg and falls into soil.
Excretion: Nitrogenous waste leaves out of anus. The nephridia removes waste from blood stream.
Nutrition: Food enters the mouth; moves into the crop and then into the gizzard for digestion to be completed.
Gas Exchange: O2 enters and CO2 moves out by use of the skin (diffusion)- lives in moist soil.
Grasshopper- Invertebrate; Phylum Arthropoda; Class Insecta.
1. Insects= 6 Legs, 3 Body Sections, Wings, Closed Circulatory System, Internal Fertilization- External Development.
Excretory= uses malpighian tubules are used to remove nitrogenous waste known as uric acid (crystal formation)
Gas Exchange: O2 enters the spiracles and goes down tracheal tubes to enter bloodstream -CO2 moves out by spiracles.
4. Nutrition= chews food by using mandibles (eats grass, wheat) (next page)
3 Body Segments: head, thorax and abdomen
Some insects can carry on parthenogenesis (cloning happening with an unfertilized egg) ex. Ants, wasps, bees.
Locomotion: Jointed Appendages and Wings.
Protection: Exoskeleton (hard outer covering made of chitin)
Draw and label as in the book Incomplete Metamorphosis.
Old Book- 774
New Book- 754
The Characteristics of a Chordate
Chordates have a notochord; but Vertebrate Chordates only have a notochord when they are embryos. The notochord is replaced by backbone to protect spinal chord.
Chordates have muscle blocks (stacks of muscles).
Chordates have dorsal nerve fins.
Chordates have gill slits or did have gill slits in embryonic stage, also called pharyngeal pouches.
Locomotion by fins.
Gas Exchange: happens in gills: O2 enters from water and CO2 moves out. By diffusion.
Closed Circulatory System: heart has 2 chambers.
Reproduction: Sexual called spawning- external fertilization; female releases lots of eggs into water male swims over releasing sperm.
Kidney removes nitrogeneous waste out of bloodstream.
Swim Bladder: Controls depth fish swims.
Sense Organ: Lateral Line System detects changes in water.
A. Agnathans- jawless fish (Hagfish)
B. Chondrichthyes- Sharks, rays, (lots of cartilage)
C. Osteichthyes- Bony Fish- spot; trout, brim, etc
Covered by a hard shell.
All birds, all reptiles, all monotremes lay the amniotic egg.
Yolk= food sac supplies food to embryo.
Amnion= fluid that surrounds the embryo to protect it.
Allantois= place where nitrogeneous waste of embryo sent for storage.
Chorion= gas exchange; O2 in and CO2 out.
Reptiles are vertebrates; Chordates
All reptiles have scaly skin.
Closed circulatory system: most have a 3-chambered heart; some have 4-chambered heart.
Internal Fertilization- lay fertilized amniotic egg on land.
Ectotherms- cold blooded.
Gas Exchange- lungs: (O2 in and CO2 out).
Nitrogenous waste removed out of bloodstream by kidneys.
Amphibians are Vertebrates; Chordates; and Ectotherms.
They undergo metamorphosis (incomplete). Fertilized egg tadpole adult frog (eggs laid in water)
Have thin, moist skin used for gas exchange and also uses their lungs.
Double Life: live on land and in water.
Closed circulatory system: 3-chambered heart.
Reproduction: sexual: external fertilization in water.
Vertebrate, Chordate, Endotherm.
Have 4-chmbered heart: very efficient.
Heart keeps oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separated.
Breast-bone (sternum)- strong support for flight.
Sexual Reproduction; internal fertilization; female lays a fertilized amnioticegg.
Oxygenated blood have high level of O2. Deoxygenated blood has high level of CO2.
The Owl is nocturnal: circadian rhythm= (biological time clock based on 24-hours): metabolism low during day and high at night. They incubate an amniotic egg.
Draw owl head
Hawk= carnivore (Niche)= eats animals only
3. Red Bird= (State Bird); omnivore (niche): eats plants and animals.
Draw Red Bird
Mammals= All produce milk for their young. They are vertebrates, Chordates, 4-chambered heart, lungs, have hair, diaphragm muscle beneath lungs, endotherms, have glands that produce hormones, teeth that grind food.
Kangaroo- Marsupial has pouch where young fetus develops.
Horse- Ungulate; has hoofs; Placental.
Anteater= Insectivora; eats insects; placental
Duckbilled Platypus= Monotreme- lays amniotic egg.
Draw Duckbilled Platypus
Whale= Cetacean= lots of blubber; Placental.
Fox= Carnivore; Placental Mammal.
Rabbit= Logomorpha- powerful hind legs for jumping; placental mammal.
Armadillo= Edentata= toothless; placental mammal.