Working Conditions • The machines were exposed and dangerous • Children worked in hard to reach places-dangerous • Often lived with 6 people in one room • Not paid well • Exhausted • 12 hour shifts
Reforms to Factory Work • Robert Owen and Titus Salt started some of the reforms • Other factory workers did not like the reforms (less money) • Reforms: • Factory Act 1819 Limited the hours worked by children to a maximum of 12 per day. • Factory Act 1833 Children under 9 banned from working in the textiles industry and 10-13 year olds limited to a 48 hour week. • Factory Act 1844 Maximum of 12 hours work per day for Women. • Factory Act 1847 Maximum of 10 hours work per day for Women and children. • Factory Act 1850 Increased hours worked by Women and children to 10 and a half hours a day, but not allowed to work before 6am or after 6pm. • 1874 No worker allowed to work more than 56.5 hours per week.
Farm Economy • Individual families produce everything they need on their farm • Luxury items are sent from England • Wealth is measured in property
Market Economy • Based on jobs and money • Families bought more things than they made • Wealth is measured in money.
Main Figures of the Industrial Revolution • Samuel Slater • Francis Cabot Lowell • Eli Whitney
Textiles • Fancy word for cloth or fabric • Late 1700s: England made the best AND cheapest cloth • England used cotton-spinning machines to make their textiles • English factories kept their machines secret so no American factories could compete with them.
Samuel Slater • America’s first corporate spy • Worked in a cotton factory in England • Memorized how cotton-spinning machines were made. • Came to America (1790) and shared the secret with American businessmen
Francis Cabot Lowell • Saw a power loom in England • After seeing the power loom once Lowell understood how it worked and made his own loom in the USA.
Lowell System • Francis Cabot Lowell hired young women to work his factories. • He paid them less than men • He offered attractive incentives: • Boarding house near the factory • Religious instruction • Educational opportunities
Eli Whitney • Introduced the idea of interchangeable parts • Before this time a musket was made by a gunsmith. • Each gun would be a little different so if it broke a gunsmith would have to be make a replacement part. • Now you could fix a gun using parts of another gun etc. • Applied this idea to machines used in the industrial revolution
Eli Whitney • Invented the Cotton Gin • Took seeds out of cotton 50 times faster than by hand • Made cotton more readily available for making textiles • Greatly increased the demand for slaves
Timeline of Industrial Revolution Inventions • 1733 Flying shuttle invented by John Kay - an improvement to looms that enabled weavers to weave faster. • 1742 Cotton mills were first opened in England. • 1764 Spinning jenny invented by James Hargreaves - the first machine to improve upon the spinning wheel.
1764 Water frame invented by Richard Arkwright - the first powered textile machine. • 1769Arkwright patented the water frame. • 1770Hargreaves patented the Spinning Jenny. • 1773The first all-cotton textiles were produced in factories.
1785Cartwright patented the power loom. It was improved upon by William Horrocks, known for his invention of the variable speed batton in 1813. • 1787Cotton goods production had increased 10 fold since 1770. • 1789 Samuel Slater brought textile machinery design to the US. • 1790Arkwright built the first steam powered textile factory in Nottingham, England.
1792Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin - a machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber. • 1804 Joseph Marie Jacquard invented the Jacquard Loom that weaved complex designs. Jacquard invented a way of automatically controlling the warp and weft threads on a silk loom by recording patterns of holes in a string of cards. • 1813 William Horrocks invented the variable speed batton (for an improved power loom) • 1856William Perkin invented the first synthetic dye.