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Changing Stressful Behaviors. Chapter 13. “Unless we change directions, we are liable to end up where we are headed…”. “The only person who likes change is a wet baby.” - Roger Von Oech.

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changing stressful behaviors

Changing Stressful Behaviors

Chapter 13

“Unless we change directions,

we are liable to end up

where we are headed…”

slide2

“The only person who likes change

is a wet baby.”

- Roger Von Oech

slide3
“I didn’t come to be told I’m burning the candle at both ends,” said a patient to his doctor. “I came for more wax.”
how people change
How People Change
  • Doctors – 3%
  • Self help groups – less than 3%
  • Friends – 14%
  • Family – 21%
  • Spouse/significant other – 29%
  • People on their own – 30%

Gallup Poll 1990

your attitude on change
Your Attitude on Change
  • I won’t
  • I can’t
  • I will try
  • I can
  • I will
  • I commit

Can’t is a will that refuses to succeed

locus of control
Locus of Control
  • Locus of control: Perception of one’s control over events that affect one’s life
  • (Use Lab Assessment 7.5 p.164 to identify your locus of control)
  • Use Lab Assessment 13.4 as a guide to reducing stressful behaviors
behavior change
Behavior Change
  • Hear a good idea 20%
  • Develop a plan 40%
  • Decide when to implement plan 55%
  • Discuss with another (commits) 80%
  • Set a future date for accountability 95%
health and lifestyle behaviors
Health and Lifestyle Behaviors
  • Health Behavior: Activities taken by people who believe themselves to be healthy and that are designed to maintain health; a subclass of lifestyle behaviors
    • Examples: limiting sugar and salt in your diet, avoiding smoking cigarettes, exercising
    • Before you can change health-related behaviors, you must identify behaviors that need to be changed (Lab Assessment 13.1)
  • Lifestyle Behavior: All of the activities in which people engage
    • Examples: daily chores, going to school or work, meeting new people, listening intently to a lecture (Lab Assessment 13.2)
types of conditioning
Types of Conditioning
  • Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
    • Stimulus produces physiological reflex
  • Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner)
    • Reward / punishment
  • Modeling
    • Concept of imitation
barriers to changing behavior reasons given as preventing one from engaging in certain activities
Barriers to Changing Behavior--- reasons given as preventing one from engaging in certain activities
  • Cost
  • Embarrassment
  • Family responsibilities
  • Inconvenience
  • Lack of family support
  • Lack of proper facilities/equipment
  • Lab Assessment 13.3
  • Fatigue
  • Not available
  • Other people
  • Pain/discomfort
  • Time
  • Transportation
  • Weather
  • Work responsibilities
methods for decreasing stressful behaviors
Methods for Decreasing Stressful Behaviors
  • Self-monitoring: Observing and recording behavior
  • Tailoring: Making changes specific to the life of the individual
  • Material reinforcement: Rewarding a behavior with a tangible object
  • Social reinforcement: Rewarding a behavior with social approval
  • Social support: Emotional or informational support from a friend
methods for decreasing stressful behaviors cont
Methods for Decreasing Stressful Behaviors (cont.)
  • Self-contracting: Making a contract with oneself to change behavior
  • Contracting with a significant other, a person who is important to you
  • Shaping: Changing behavior a little at a time
  • Reminders: Receiving messages to promote behavior change
  • Self-help groups
  • Professional help
application of behavior change techniques
Application of Behavior-Change Techniques
  • Example: Exercise
    • Identify desired behavior
    • Identify barriers
    • Self-monitor behavior
    • Write a self-contract or contract with a significant other
    • Tailor the program
    • Include material or social reinforcement
    • Shaping: start with an easy program
    • Use reminders
    • Consider using self-help groups or professional help

© 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

behavior change theories and stress
Behavior Change Theories and Stress
  • Stages of Change Theory
    • Precontemplation- unaware of the problem or need to change
    • Contemplation- thinking about change, but no action taken yet.
    • Decision/determination- start planning change/action.
    • Action- implementing management program.
    • Maintenance- continuing the changed behavior over time.
behavior change theories and stress cont
Behavior Change Theories and Stress (cont.)
  • Self-Efficacy Theory
    • Confidence in ability to carry out the change is predictor of success
    • Four ways to increase confidence:
      • Performance attainment- nothing succeeds like success.
      • Vicarious experience- influenced by observing others.
      • Verbal persuasion- “you can do it”
      • Physiological state- receive information from our level of stress.
behavior change theories and stress cont16
Behavior Change Theories and Stress (cont.)
  • Theory of Reasoned Action
    • Behaviors are a result of attitudes, norms, and intentions. Intent has been shown as the best predictor of the behavior actually being performed.
  • Theory of Planned Behavior
    • Adds the variable of amount of perceived control
goal setting theory
Goal-Setting Theory
  • Moderately difficult goal is best
  • Establish proximal and distal goals
  • People with higher self-efficacy set higher goals
  • Self-efficacy and importance assigned to goal are predictors of success
  • Core properties include specificity and difficulty of goal, anticipated benefits, and feedback
effective goal setting
Effective Goal Setting
  • Be specific about the goal and how difficult it is to achieve.
  • What are the anticipated effects of achieving the goal?
  • Feedback regarding the goal.