CHAPTER The Union in Peril 10 Overview Time Lines 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery SECTION 2 Protest, Resistance, and Violence SECTION 3 The Birth of the Republican Party SECTION 4 Slavery and Secession SECTION Chapter Assessment Transparencies
THEMES IN CHAPTER 10 Immigration and Migration Women in America Constitutional Concerns CHAPTER The Union in Peril 10 HOME “Can we as a nation continue together permanently —forever—half slave and half free?” Abraham Lincoln, 1855
What do you know? Read the quote above and answer the following: • In Lincoln’s view, which is more important, abolishing slavery or having a unified country? • Do you think American society today would be better or worse if the Union had peaceably broken up into two nations? CHAPTER The Union in Peril 10 HOME “Can we as a nation continue together permanently–forever–half slave and half free?” Abraham Lincoln, 1855
1850Harriet Tubman becomes a conductor on the Underground Railroad. Congress passes Compromise of 1850. California enters the Union. 1852Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom’s Cabin. 1854 The Republican Party forms.Congress approves the Kansas- Nebraska Act. 1857Chief Justice Roger Taney announces decision in case involving Dred Scott. 1859John Brown attacks the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. 1861The Confederacy forms. CHAPTER Time Line 10 HOME The United States
1851Taiping rebellion in China begins. 1852South African Republic is established. 1853Crimean War begins. 1856British engineer Henry Bessemer develops process to produce steel. 1857Mexico institutes a new constitution. Sepoy Rebellion in India begins. 1859Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species is published. CHAPTER Time Line 10 HOME The World
Learn About the controversy over slavery in the territories. To Understand why the Compromise of 1850 was adopted. SECTION 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery HOME
SECTION 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery HOME Key Idea The issue of slavery continues to dominate U.S. politics in the early 1850s, despite the Compromise of 1850.
SOUTH TREND OR ISSUE NORTH 1. INDUSTRY AND RAILROADS Extensive industry and railroads. Little industry and few railroads. High immigration. Little immigration. 2. IMMIGRATION Supported internal improvements. Opposed internal improvements. 3. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS Supported Wilmot Proviso. Opposed Wilmot Proviso. 4. WILMOT PROVISO 5. SLAVERY IN CALIFORNIA Opposed slavery in California. Supported slavery in California. SECTION 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery HOME 1 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING What was each region’s position on the following issues or how was each region affected by the following trends?
HYPOTHESIZING After reviewing issues and events in this section that reflect the growing conflict between the North and the South, do you think there were any points at which a different action or leader might have resolved the conflict? THINK ABOUT • issues raised by the Wilmot Proviso, California’s statehood, and the Compromise of 1850 • reasons for Northerners’ anger with the South • constitutional concerns raised by Southerners • the political impact of adding new free states SECTION 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery HOME 1 Section Assessment
EVALUATING Did the North or the South win more significant concessions in the Compromise of 1850? THINK ABOUT • issues that were most sensitive in 1850 • issues that had the greatest long-range impact • issues that might have been solved by other compromises • issues that would have affected the territories SECTION 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery HOME 1 Section Assessment
Learn About the Fugitive Slave Act and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. To Understand how the controversy over slavery became increasingly violent. SECTION 2 Protest, Resistance, and Violence HOME
SECTION 2 Protest, Resistance, and Violence HOME Key Idea Proslavery and antislavery factions disagree over the treatment of fugitive slaves and the spread of slavery to the territories.
1849 Harriet Tubman escapes slavery and reaches Philadelphia. 1855Two governments are established in Kansas. 1852Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom’s Cabin. 1854Congress passes the Kansas-Nebraska Act. 1856The sack of Lawrence and the Pottawatomie massacre occur. 1850 Congress passes Fugitive Slave Act. SECTION 2 Protest, Resistance, and Violence HOME 2 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING What were the major events in the growing conflict between the North and the South?
RECOGNIZING EFFECTS Explain how Uncle Tom’s Cabin affected the abolitionist cause. SECTION 2 Protest, Resistance, and Violence HOME 2 Section Assessment
SYNTHESIZING Explain the concept of popular sovereignty and describe Northern and Southern reactions to it as a way of making decisions about slavery in the territories. SECTION 2 Protest, Resistance, and Violence HOME 2 Section Assessment
Learn About the impact of slavery, immigration, and sectionalism on U.S. politics. To Understand why new political parties emerged in the mid-19th century. SECTION 3 The Birth of the Republican Party HOME
SECTION 3 The Birth of the Republican Party HOME Key Idea Many factors—including an increase in immigration and the collapse of the Whig Party—lead to a political split over the issue of slavery.
Know-Nothing Party divides over slavery. Free-Soil Party opposes slavery in the territories. Growth of the Republican Party Temperance advocates support Republicans. Small farmers want land grants in the West. Commercial farmers and manufacturers want internal improvements. Bleeding Kansas angers opponents of slavery. Caning of Sumnerangers Northerners. SECTION 3 The Birth of the Republican Party HOME 3 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING Which events led to the growth of the Republican Party in the 1850s? Whig Party divides over slavery.
CONTRASTING How did the attitudes toward slavery held by abolitionists, free-soilers, and Know-Nothings differ? THINK ABOUT • the ultimate goal of abolitionists • the reason free-soilers objected to slavery • what caused the split in the Know-Nothing Party SECTION 3 The Birth of the Republican Party HOME 33 Section Assessment
SYNTHESIZING Imagine that you are living in a small town in Illinois in 1855. Write a flyer attracting people to a meeting of the new Republican Party in Illinois. THINK ABOUT • issues that concern voters • reasons that people might want to leave their current political parties • signs that the Republican Party will be successful SECTION 3 The Birth of the Republican Party HOME 3 Section Assessment
Learn About the increasingly divisive effects of slavery on national politics in the late 1850s. To Understand why the South seceded. SECTION 4 Slavery and Secession HOME
SECTION 4 Slavery and Secession HOME Key Idea A series of controversial events heighten the sectional conflict and bring the nation to the brink of war under President Buchanan’s weak leadership.
Event Result Northerners feared that slavery would expand everywhere. Divided the Democrats over slavery. Highlighted the debate over slavery. Southerners feared efforts to promote slavery rebellions. Northerners found a martyr for the antislavery cause. Led to Southern secession. SECTION 4 Slavery and Secession HOME 4 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING How did the following six events sharpen the North-South conflict? 1. Dred Scott decision 2. Lecompton constitution 3. Lincoln-Douglas debates 4. Harpers Ferry raid 5. John Brown’s hanging 6. Election of 1860
FORMING OPINIONS If you had been voting in the presidential election of 1860, for whom would you have voted? THINK ABOUT • each candidate’s views on slavery and other issues • each candidate’s experience and personality • each candidate’s ability to keep the country united SECTION 4 Slavery and Secession HOME 4 Section Assessment
ANALYZING ISSUES Do you think Lincoln made the right decision in choosing not to free the slaves immediately once the Confederacy had been formed? THINK ABOUT • the number of states that had already seceded • the importance of the border states • possible reactions if he had freed the slaves SECTION 4 Slavery and Secession HOME 4 Section Assessment
10 Chapter Assessment HOME 1. Describe the economic differences between the North and the South in the 1850s. 2. Explain why the Wilmot Proviso failed to pass in the Senate. 3. What were the major terms of the Compromise of 1850? 4. Compare the impact of Harriet Tubman and Harriet Beecher Stowe on antislavery attitudes in the North. 5. What were the basic provisions and results of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
10 Chapter Assessment HOME 6. Why did the Republican Party grow as the Whig and Know-Nothing parties declined in the 1850s? 7. Summarize the results of the election of 1856. 8. How did the Dred Scott decision affect slavery in the territories? 9. Compare and contrast Abraham Lincoln’s and Stephen A. Douglas’s view about slavery in the territories. 10. Why was the South so upset by Lincoln’s election?