Hoofed mammals. Ungulates. Ungulates: Refer to mammals with hooves Artiodactyla: even toed Perissodactyla: odd toed. Hoofed mammals (ungulates). Order Perissodactyla. Order Artiodactyla. Weight shared between two central toes. Weight borne on one central toe. Hoof a modified nail?.
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Hoofed mammals Ungulates
Ungulates: Refer to mammals with hooves • Artiodactyla: even toed • Perissodactyla: odd toed
Hoofed mammals (ungulates) Order Perissodactyla Order Artiodactyla Weight shared between two central toes Weight borne on one central toe
Hoof a modified nail? Hooves, claws, and nails are all composed of two structures: the unguis (a scale-like plate; our finger- and toe-nails) and the subunguis (a softer layer, found as a very fine layer on the underside of our fingernails) which connect the unguis to the pad of the digit.
Hoof a good modification? • Ungulates account for the majority of the herbivores in the world • Over 257 species
Skulls of ungulates Perissodactyla Ovis - sheep Equus - horse Artiodactyla Sus - pig Camelus - camel
Perissodactyla Contains17 Recent species in three families: Equidae (horses), Tapiridae (tapirs), Rhinocerotidae (rhinoceroses)
Perissodactyls: Equidae examples Equus caballus Feral horse (Mustang) Przewalski’s Horse Equus asinus donkey 3 species Zebra
Perrisodatyles are Herbivores • Unique digestive system and dentition to suit their diet. • Special bacteria in their intestines to digest cellulose.
Horse skull Cusps of cheekteeth joined by ridges Long diastema Canines large in males, small or absent in females
Equidae: True wild horses are called the Przewalski’s • Horses: • http://animal.discovery.com/videos/jaws-and-claws-2-wild-horses.html • True wild horses do not look like the domesticated horse which has been bred by humans for over 4,000 years.
Equidae: Zebra’s 3 species: • Grevy’s • Plains • Mountain • http://animal.discovery.com/videos/growing-up-zebra-baby-zebra.html
Perissodactyl: Tapiridae(Tapirs) • Diet: Herbivore • Average life span in the wild:25 to 30 years • Size:Height at shoulder, 29 to 42 inches • Weight:500 to 800 lbs • Status:Endangered
Perissodactyl: Tapiridae = Tapirs Malayan Tapir Mountain Tapirs Lowland Tapir Bairds Tapir
Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae (Rhinoceros) • STATUS:Endangered • DESCRIPTION: • There are five species of rhinos • The African species: white and black rhinos. • Asian rhinos include the Indian and the Javan • The five species range in weight from 750 pounds to 8,000 pounds and stand anywhere from four and a half to six feet tall.
Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae • POPULATION: • Black Rhino: 2,400 White Rhino: 7,500 Sumatran Rhino: 400 Javan Rhino: fewer than 100 Indian Rhino: more than 2,000
Perissodactyl: Rhinocerotidae • LIFESPAN: 35 years. HABITAT: • Rhino habitat ranges from savannas to dense forests in tropical and subtropical regions.
Artiodactyla • Artiodactyls are the most diverse, large, terrestrial mammals alive today. They are the fifth largest order of mammals, consisting of approximately 210 species.
Suborders and families of Artiodactyla 1 Domestic Cow Ruminantia 2 Cape Buffalo Ruminantia 3 White-tailed Deer Ruminantia 4 Pygmy (Hippopotaminae) 5 Caribou Ruminantia 6 Giraffe Ruminantia 7Hippopotamus (Hippopotaminae) 8South American LamaTylopoda 9White-lipped PeccaryTayassuidae 10 Common Warthog Suidae 11Domestic Pig Suidae 12 Camel Tylopoda 13Collared PeccaryTayassuidae 14Bison Ruminantia (Bovidae)
Artiodactyla Ruminants Upper incisors absent, replaced in life by a hard pad on which lower incisors bite Suiformes (non ruminants) Male canines curl upward
Artiodactyla: Herbivores • Artiodactyla are also herbivores • Most are Ruminants • Digestion in ruminants occurs sequentially in a four-chambered stomach
Compared to the perissodactyla Artiodactyla have cloven feet. Why the difference?
artiodactyls - 1 Cervus timorensis - rusa Capra hircus – goat Camelus dromedarius – camel Sus scrofa – pig
Antilope cervicapra - blackbuck artiodactyls - 2 Bos taurus x Bos indicus – cattle Bubalus bubalis – buffalo Bos javanicus – banteng
And finally, Cetacea Two suborders: • Mysticeti • Baleen whales • Right whales • Rorquals • Odontoceti • Toothed whales • Sperm whales • Dolphins
How can whales be related to artiodactyla? • Astragali of the Eocene protocetids (left) and Artiocetus clavis (right), as compared to that of the pronghorn Antilocapra americana (centre). Note the distinct double-pulley shape.
Molecular evidence now indicates clearly that cetaceans are actually artiodactyls that have become totally aquatic
Balaenopteridae - Rorquals Mysticeti Balaenidae – Right whales Megaptera novaeangliae - Humpback Balaena australis Southern Right While Balaenoptera physalus – Fin whale
Baleen is used to filter plankton Long, fine baleen of Blue Whale, suitable for filtering krill (tiny crustaceans) Baleen hangs down from palate Short, coarse baleen of Minke Whale, suitable for trapping small fish
Balaenoptera musculus – Blue whale Grooves on throat of rorquals are normally pulled tight to make mouth into a beak But when feeding, the whale relaxes the grooves and takes in gallons of water, which it pushes through the baleen and expels, filtering out the prey
Odontoceti – toothed whales Delphinus delphis – Common dolphin Orcinus orca – Orca or Killer whale Homodont (teeth all alike) usually dozens in each jaw Physeter macrocephalus – Sperm whale Sperm whale tooth