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Humanistic Third-Force Psychology

Humanistic Third-Force Psychology

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Humanistic Third-Force Psychology

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    1. Humanistic (Third-Force) Psychology Chapter 18

    2. The Evolution of Personality Theory: Humanistic Psychology Some 15 to 20 theories were derived in some respect from Freudian psychoanalytic theory. Like Wundt, Freud presented a system of thought that both brought followers and motivated revolt. Freudian theory was a point of revolt, not a base, for humanistic psychology. Third-Force Psychology: Assumes that humans are basically good. That is, if negative environmental factors did not stifle human development, humans would live humane lives. Humanistic psychology is concerned with examining the more positive aspects of human nature that behaviorism and psychoanalysis had neglected. -Behaviorism seems to study humans as robots. -Psychoanalysis focuses on how to make unhealthy people healthier. -All of psychology was focusing only on the most negative aspects of people. -A new psychology was needed to discover how healthy people could become healthier.-Behaviorism seems to study humans as robots. -Psychoanalysis focuses on how to make unhealthy people healthier. -All of psychology was focusing only on the most negative aspects of people. -A new psychology was needed to discover how healthy people could become healthier.

    3. The Mind, the Body, and the Spirit Subjective Reality: A person's consciousness. Some believe it is the most important determinant of behavior. Human science should not study humans as physical science studies physical objects. Human science should study humans as aware, choosing, valuing, emotional, and unique beings.

    4. Antecedents of Third-Force Psychology Phenomenology Phenomenology: The introspective study of intact, mental experiences. Intentionality: Brentano's contention that every mental act refers to something external to the act. Pure Phenomenology: The methodology proposed by Husserl to discover the essence of those mental acts and processes by which we gain all knowledge. Ontology: The study of the nature of existence. -Brentano, Franz (1838-1917) A modern adherent of phenomenology. Brentano's act psychology required the careful analysis of meaningful, intact mental phenomena. -Husserl, Edmund (1859-1938) Proposed two types of phenomenology. One type stressed intentionality and sought to determine the relationship between mental acts and events in the physical world. The second type involved an analysis of the contents and processes of the mind that are independent of physical events. -Third force psychology combines the philosophies of existentialism and romanticism. -Brentano, Franz (1838-1917) A modern adherent of phenomenology. Brentano's act psychology required the careful analysis of meaningful, intact mental phenomena. -Husserl, Edmund (1859-1938) Proposed two types of phenomenology. One type stressed intentionality and sought to determine the relationship between mental acts and events in the physical world. The second type involved an analysis of the contents and processes of the mind that are independent of physical events. -Third force psychology combines the philosophies of existentialism and romanticism.

    5. Existential Psychology Rooted in European Existential Philosophy Based in Clinical Experience People live in the Present and are Responsible for Experiences People lack Courage to Face Destiny and Flee from Freedom Healthy People Challenge Destiny and Live Authentically -Existential psychology can be traced back to Socrates statement An unexamined life is not worth living. -Existential philosophy emphasized the uniqueness of each individual, in direct contradiction to the rational and empirical philosophies which searched for universal truths.-Existential psychology can be traced back to Socrates statement An unexamined life is not worth living. -Existential philosophy emphasized the uniqueness of each individual, in direct contradiction to the rational and empirical philosophies which searched for universal truths.

    6. Existential Psychology Martin Heidegger Worked with Edmund Husserl Became Rector of the University of Freiburg Inaugural speech (1933) titled The Role of the University in the New Reich Seemed to be highly supportive of Nazism Existential Psychology: The brand of contemporary psychology that was influenced by existential philosophy. The key concepts in existential psychology include freedom, individuality, responsibility, anxiety, guilt, thrownness, and authenticity. -Heidegger, Martin (1889-1976) Expanded Husserl's phenomenology to include an examination of the totality of human existence. -Heidegger, Martin (1889-1976) Expanded Husserl's phenomenology to include an examination of the totality of human existence.

    7. Existential Psychology Martin Heidegger Dasein: Heidegger's term for "being-in-the-world." The world does not exist without humans, and humans do not exist without the world. Because humans exist in the world, it is there that they must exercise their free will. Being-in-the-world means existing in the world, and existing means interpreting and valuing one's experiences and making choices regarding those experiences. The person and the world are inseparable. Existence is dynamic, to exist as a human is to exist as no other object. -Humans are not static, they are always becoming something other than what they were. -How an individual chooses to exist is a personal matter. -However, each human chooses the nature of their own existence.-Humans are not static, they are always becoming something other than what they were. -How an individual chooses to exist is a personal matter. -However, each human chooses the nature of their own existence.

    8. Existential Psychology Martin Heidegger Authentic Life: The type of life that is freely chosen and not dictated by the values of others. In such a life, one's own feelings, values, and interpretations act as a guide for conduct. A prerequisite for living an authentic life is coming to grip with the fact that I must die someday. People often refuse to recognize they are mortal because it causes anxiety. Becoming: A characteristic of the authentic life because the authentic person is always becoming something other than what he or she was. Becoming is the normal, healthy psychological growth of a human being. Inauthentic Life: A life lived in accordance with values other than those freely and personally chosen. Such a life is characterized by guilt. -An authentic life is lived with a sense of urgency as one realizes the limited time they have to explore all of life. -The speech and behavior of authentic individuals accurately reflect their inner feelings. -An inauthentic life does not have the same sense of urgency. -An inauthentic person gives up their freedom and allow others to make choices about their personal lives by following the dictates of society, herd conformity. -An authentic life is lived with a sense of urgency as one realizes the limited time they have to explore all of life. -The speech and behavior of authentic individuals accurately reflect their inner feelings. -An inauthentic life does not have the same sense of urgency. -An inauthentic person gives up their freedom and allow others to make choices about their personal lives by following the dictates of society, herd conformity.

    9. Existential Psychology Martin Heidegger Guilt: The feeling that results from living an inauthentic life. Anxiety: The feeling that results when one confronts the unknown, as when one contemplates death or when one's choices carry one into new life circumstances. One cannot live an authentic life without experiencing anxiety. Authentic people are always taking chances and becoming. Courage: That attribute necessary for living an authentic life because such a life is characterized by uncertainty. Responsibility: A necessary by-product of freedom. If we are free to choose our own existence, then we are completely responsible for that existence. A free individual cannot blame God, their parents, or anyone else.

    10. Existential Psychology Martin Heidegger There are limits on personal freedom! Thrownness: The circumstances that characterize a person's existence that are beyond the person's control. Determines whether we are male or female, short or tall, etc. Throwness determines the conditions under which we express our personal freedoms.

    11. Existential Psychology Ludwig Binswanger Studied psychoanalysis under Jung and remained good friends with Freud throughout life. Attempted to integrate the writings of Husserl and Heidegger with Psychoanalysis. Daseinanalysis: Binswanger's method of psychotherapy that requires that the therapist understand the client's worldview. Daseinanalysis examines a person's mode of being-in-the-world. Emphasizes the here and now, not the past or future. -Binswanger, Ludwig (1881-1966) Applied Heidegger's existential philosophy to psychiatry and psychology. For Binswanger, a prerequisite for helping an emotionally disturbed person is to determine how that person views himself or herself and the world. -Rather than knowing about fears, anxieties, values, social relations, thought processes in general, the therapist must try to understand these processes in the unique individual in therapy.-Binswanger, Ludwig (1881-1966) Applied Heidegger's existential philosophy to psychiatry and psychology. For Binswanger, a prerequisite for helping an emotionally disturbed person is to determine how that person views himself or herself and the world. -Rather than knowing about fears, anxieties, values, social relations, thought processes in general, the therapist must try to understand these processes in the unique individual in therapy.

    12. Existential Psychology Ludwig Binswanger Modes of Existence Three modes of existence to which individuals give meaning through consciousness. Umwelt: The physical world. Mitwelt: The realm of social interactions. Eigenwelt: A person's private, inner experiences. To understand a person fully, one must understand all three of their modes of existence. World-design (Weltanschauung): A person's basic orientation toward the world and life. It is through the world design that one lives ones life.

    13. Existential Psychology Ludwig Binswanger Ground of Existence Ground of existence: The circumstances into which a person is thrown and according to which he or she must make choices. (Also called facticity.) Being-beyond-the-world: Binswanger's term for becoming. The healthy individual always attempts to transcend what he or she is. -Though we may be thrown into negative experiences, we can grow from them. -Nietzsche What does not kill me, makes me stronger.-Though we may be thrown into negative experiences, we can grow from them. -Nietzsche What does not kill me, makes me stronger.

    14. Existential Psychology Rollo May Born in Ada, Ohio in 1909 B.A. from Oberlin College in 1930 Lived as an itinerant artist in Europe for three years after college, where he heard Adler speak Returned to the U.S. in 1933 Graduated from Union Theological Seminary in 1938 Serves as a pastor for two years, then quits and begins to study psychoanalysis Received his PhD in clinical psychology from Columbia in 1949 Published The Meaning of Anxiety in 1950 Served as visiting professor at Harvard and Princeton Died in Tiburon, California in 1994 Introduced Heideggerian existentialism to U.S. psychology. -May, Rollo (1909-1994) Psychologist who was instrumental in bringing European existential philosophy and psychology to the United States. -May, Rollo (1909-1994) Psychologist who was instrumental in bringing European existential philosophy and psychology to the United States.

    15. Existential Psychology Rollo May The Human Dilemma Human Dilemma: The paradox that results from the dual nature of humans as objects to which things happen and as subjects who assign meaning to their experiences. It is as objects that humans are studied using the traditional methods of science. As subjects, people actively interpret, value, and make choices regarding our existence. The most important fact about humans is that they are free.

    16. Existential Psychology Rollo May Normal and Neurotic Anxiety Neurotic Anxiety: The abnormal fear of freedom that results in a person living a life that minimizes personal choice. Shut-Upness: Kierkegaard's term for the type of life lived by a defensive, inauthentic person. Self-Alienation: The condition that results when people accept values other than those that they have attained freely and personally as guides for living. Results in guilt, apathy, and despair. -Freedom does not produce a tranquil life because freedom carries with it responsibility, uncertainty, and therefore, anxiety. -Either we can exercise our free will and experience normal anxiety, or minimize personal choice and experience neurotic anxiety.-Freedom does not produce a tranquil life because freedom carries with it responsibility, uncertainty, and therefore, anxiety. -Either we can exercise our free will and experience normal anxiety, or minimize personal choice and experience neurotic anxiety.

    17. Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow Born in Brooklyn Unhappy childhood, miserable family Mother Horrible creature; superstitious, abusive, and rejecting of Maslow Killed his kittens by smashing them against wall Never forgave her for negative treatment Would not attend her funeral Characterized his entire being and career as motivated by hatred for what she stood for. Father: alcoholic womanizing, often absent Self Unattractive, skinny kid with a big nose with inferiority feelings Ridiculed by parents In adolescence convinced he was the ugliest of all Failing to establish esteem and respect in athletics, turned to education -Maslow, Abraham (1908-1970) A humanistic psychologist who emphasized the innate human tendency toward self-actualization. Maslow contended that behaviorism and psychoanalysis provided only a partial understanding of human existence and that humanistic, or third-force, psychology needed to be added to complete our understanding. -Spiritual father of humanistic psychology -Strongest influence in initiating the movement -Garnered academic respectability for the movement -Goal: to understand the highest achievements of which humans are capable. -Maslow, Abraham (1908-1970) A humanistic psychologist who emphasized the innate human tendency toward self-actualization. Maslow contended that behaviorism and psychoanalysis provided only a partial understanding of human existence and that humanistic, or third-force, psychology needed to be added to complete our understanding. -Spiritual father of humanistic psychology -Strongest influence in initiating the movement -Garnered academic respectability for the movement -Goal: to understand the highest achievements of which humans are capable.

    18. Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow Studied under Titchener at Cornell Married his first cousin! Eventually enrolled at the University of Wisconsin. Ironically, he became fascinated with Watsonian behaviorism while studying with Harry Harlow. Fascination ended with birth of first child. Dissertation on the establishment of dominance in a colony of monkeys. Dominance has more to do with inner confidence than actual strength. Worked with Thorndike at Columbia

    19. Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow Humanistic Psychology: The branch of psychology that is closely aligned with existential psychology. Unlike existential psychology, however, humanistic psychology assumes that humans are basically good. That is, if negative environmental factors did not stifle human development, humans would live humane lives. Humanistic psychology is concerned with examining the more positive aspects of human nature that behaviorism and psychoanalysis had neglected. (Also called third-force psychology.) In order for psychology to qualify as humanistic it must view humans as unique organisms capable of pondering their existence and giving it meaning.

    20. Not intended to as a revision or adaptation of prior schools. Instead conceived as a third force to replace the two forces of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Basic themes Emphasis on the positive rather than the negative in human traits and goals. Focus on conscious experience. Belief in free will. Confidence in unity of human personality. Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow The Basic Tenets of Humanistic Psychology -Other themes: -Little can be learned of humans from studying nonhuman animals. -Subjective reality is the primary guide for human behavior. -Studying an individual more enlightening than understanding generalities. -Research should focus on human problem solving.-Other themes: -Little can be learned of humans from studying nonhuman animals. -Subjective reality is the primary guide for human behavior. -Studying an individual more enlightening than understanding generalities. -Research should focus on human problem solving.

    21. The Nature of Humanistic Psychology Protested behaviorism Narrow, inflexible, unfruitful Deterministic and mechanistic Objectification, quantification, and reduction of humans to animal-like S-R components Protested Freudianism Also deterministic and mechanistic Minimization of consciousness Exclusion of normals from study Protested psychologys Focus on mental illness Tendency to ignore human strengths and virtues Intent: a serious study of neglected areas

    22. Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow The Hierarchy of Needs These needs come from ancestral instincts, therefore the higher up they are, the more recently they developed, and therefore the more fragile they are. -We are driven by our needs, lower level needs take precedence over higher level needs. If we cant breathe, it definitely becomes the need which overrides all others. -Maslow proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs, with physiological needs at the base. If our physiological needs are met, we become concerned with personal safety; if we achieve a sense of security, we then seek to love, be loved, and love ourselves; with our love needs met, we seek self-esteem. Having achieved self-esteem, we ultimately seek self-actualization, the process of fulfilling our potential. -We are driven by our needs, lower level needs take precedence over higher level needs. If we cant breathe, it definitely becomes the need which overrides all others. -Maslow proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs, with physiological needs at the base. If our physiological needs are met, we become concerned with personal safety; if we achieve a sense of security, we then seek to love, be loved, and love ourselves; with our love needs met, we seek self-esteem. Having achieved self-esteem, we ultimately seek self-actualization, the process of fulfilling our potential.

    23. Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow Self-Actualization Self-Actualization: The innate, human tendency toward wholeness. The self-actualizing person is open to experience and embraces the higher values of human existence. Aristotle referred to the innate tendency to manifest the essence of ones species. Maslows notion similar to Jungs notion. Self-actualization requires a lot of self knowledge, something we tend to be fearful of. Jonah Complex: The fear of one's own potential greatness or evasion of ones destiny. -Self Actualization is -Innate predisposition -The highest human need -Involves active use of all of ones traits and talents -Involves the growth and realization of ones potential-Self Actualization is -Innate predisposition -The highest human need -Involves active use of all of ones traits and talents -Involves the growth and realization of ones potential

    24. Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow The Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People The self-actualizing person is: Self-aware and self-accepting, open and spontaneous, loving and caring, and not paralyzed by others opinions. The self-actualizing person has: Learned enough about life to be compassionate. Outgrown their mixed feelings towards their parents. Found their calling. Acquired enough courage to be unpopular. Learned to be unashamed about being openly virtuous. -Tendencies common to self-actualizers -Objective perception of reality; -A full acceptance of their own nature; -A commitment and dedication to some kind of work; -Simplicity and naturalness of behavior; -A need for autonomy, privacy, and independence; -Intense mystical or peak experiences; -Empathy with and affection for humanity; -Resistance to conformity; -A democratic character structure; -An attitude of creativeness, and -A high degree of what Adler termed social interest. -Prerequisites for self-actualization -Adequate childhood love -Meeting of physiological and safety needs in 1st two years -Esteem from others -Tendencies common to self-actualizers -Objective perception of reality; -A full acceptance of their own nature; -A commitment and dedication to some kind of work; -Simplicity and naturalness of behavior; -A need for autonomy, privacy, and independence; -Intense mystical or peak experiences; -Empathy with and affection for humanity; -Resistance to conformity; -A democratic character structure; -An attitude of creativeness, and -A high degree of what Adler termed social interest. -Prerequisites for self-actualization -Adequate childhood love -Meeting of physiological and safety needs in 1st two years -Esteem from others

    25. Continued freshness of appreciation Repeated sense of naive awe and delight of lifes experiences and beauty. Comes sporadically at unforeseen moments Individual differences in the content (music, nature, children) of what is perceived as beautiful. Does not emanate from commonly considered sources of happiness such as going to a party or receiving money. Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow The Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People

    26. The peak (mystic) experience Previously described by William James Strong, chaotic, pervasive emotions Similarity between mystic experiences and some subjects descriptions of sexual orgasms. Boundless possibilities Mixture of power and helplessness Feelings of ecstasy and amazement Freedom from time and space Sense of transformation Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow The Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People

    27. Social interest (gemeinschaftsgefuehl) German word invented by Alfred Adler Deep feeling of appreciation for and empathy with others even if they exhibit shortcomings. Identification with humankind Adlers older-brotherly attitude Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow The Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People -A social interest that transcends ones personal friends. -Self-actualizing people are not without faults however. -Self-actualizing people can exhibit surgical coldness when the situation demands it.-A social interest that transcends ones personal friends. -Self-actualizing people are not without faults however. -Self-actualizing people can exhibit surgical coldness when the situation demands it.

    28. Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow Deficiency and Being Motivation and Perception Deficiency Motivation: Motivation that is directed toward the satisfaction of some specific need. (Also called D-motivation.) Need-directed Perception: Perception whose purpose is to locate things in the environment that will satisfy a need. (Also called deficiency perception or D-perception.) Being Motivation: The type of motivation that characterizes the self-actualizing person. Because being motivation is not need-directed, it embraces the higher values of human existence, such as beauty, truth, and justice. (Also called B-motivation.) Motivation after all of our needs are met. Being Perception: Perception that embraces fully "what is there" because it is not an attempt to locate specific items that will satisfy needs. (Also called B-perception.) -If a person is functioning at any level other than self-actualization, they are said to be deficiency-motivated. -The person is seeking specific things to meet specific needs, and their perceptions are need directed.-If a person is functioning at any level other than self-actualization, they are said to be deficiency-motivated. -The person is seeking specific things to meet specific needs, and their perceptions are need directed.

    29. Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow Transpersonal Psychology Transpersonal Psychology: Maslow's proposed fourth force in psychology that stresses the relationship between the individual and the cosmos (universe) and in so doing focuses on the mystical and spiritual aspects of human nature. Third-force psychology was intended as a preparation for Transpersonal psychology. Much in common with non-western psychology and Shintoism.

    30. Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow Criticisms and Contributions Criticism Small sample sizes preclude generalizability Subjects selected according to Maslows subjective criteria. Coincidentally, his own personal characteristics reflected the self-actualizing person! Terms are ambiguous and inconsistently defined. Rebuttal: No other way to study self-actualization; perceived work as preliminary. -Limited empirical support. -Some characteristics of self-actualizers confirmed. -Order of needs in hierarchy corroborated. -People who do not satisfy safety, belongingness, and esteem needs more likely to be neurotic. -Positive correlation between self-reported esteem and self-confidence and competence. -Most of theory has no research support. -Concept of self-actualization intuitively popular, and applied in business, education, medicine, and psychotherapy.-Limited empirical support. -Some characteristics of self-actualizers confirmed. -Order of needs in hierarchy corroborated. -People who do not satisfy safety, belongingness, and esteem needs more likely to be neurotic. -Positive correlation between self-reported esteem and self-confidence and competence. -Most of theory has no research support. -Concept of self-actualization intuitively popular, and applied in business, education, medicine, and psychotherapy.

    31. Humanistic Psychology Carl Rogers Born in Oak Park, Illinois Parents: Strict fundamentalist religious views, suppression of emotion Rogers: Parental views held him in a vise; eventually rebelled A solitary child: Relied on his own experiences Age 12: Family moved to a farm; Rogers interest in nature, agriculture and science kindled Age 22: Freedom from parents belief system; assumed more liberal views -Rogers, Carl (1902-1987) A humanist psychologist whose nondirective and then client-centered psychotherapy was seen by many as the first viable alternative to psychoanalysis as a method for treating troubled individuals. Like Maslow's, Rogers's theory of personality emphasized the innate tendency toward self-actualization. According to Rogers, a person continues toward self-actualization unless his or her organismic valuing process is displaced by conditions of worth as a guide for living. The only way to avoid creating conditions of worth is to give a person unconditional positive regard. -New beliefs became cornerstones of his theory -People must rely on their own interpretation of events -People can consciously and actively strive to improve -1931: Ph.D. in clinical and educational psychology from Teachers College at Columbia University -1st 9 years of career counseling delinquent and needy children -Later taught and developed his theory at Ohio State, University of Chicago, and University of Wisconsin -Rogers clinical and theoretical base: college students undergoing counseling -Young, bright, articulate -Problems of adjustment rather than severe psychiatric disorders -Base very different from Freuds or that of others in private practice-Rogers, Carl (1902-1987) A humanist psychologist whose nondirective and then client-centered psychotherapy was seen by many as the first viable alternative to psychoanalysis as a method for treating troubled individuals. Like Maslow's, Rogers's theory of personality emphasized the innate tendency toward self-actualization. According to Rogers, a person continues toward self-actualization unless his or her organismic valuing process is displaced by conditions of worth as a guide for living. The only way to avoid creating conditions of worth is to give a person unconditional positive regard. -New beliefs became cornerstones of his theory -People must rely on their own interpretation of events -People can consciously and actively strive to improve -1931: Ph.D. in clinical and educational psychology from Teachers College at Columbia University -1st 9 years of career counseling delinquent and needy children -Later taught and developed his theory at Ohio State, University of Chicago, and University of Wisconsin -Rogers clinical and theoretical base: college students undergoing counseling -Young, bright, articulate -Problems of adjustment rather than severe psychiatric disorders -Base very different from Freuds or that of others in private practice

    32. Humanistic Psychology Carl Rogers Rogerss Theory of Personality Organismic Valuing Process: The innate, internal guidance system that a person can use to "stay on the track" toward self-actualization. Need for Positive Regard: The need for positive responses from the relevant people in one's life. Conditions of Worth: The conditions that the relevant people in our lives place on us and that we must meet before these people will give us positive regard. Unconditional Positive Regard: The giving of positive regard without any preconditions. Fully Functioning Person: A person who is living a congruent, or authentic, life. Incongruent Person: The person whose organismic valuing process is replaced by conditions of worth as a guide for living. -Entire theory of personality rests on a single motive similar to self actualization. -Personality formed by the present and how it is consciously perceived. -Most important precursor to actualization: unconditional positive regard -Love and acceptance regardless of childs behavior -Leads to self-acceptance rather than conditions of worth -No part of self need be repressed -Self-actualization becomes possible -Epitome of psychological health -Entire theory of personality rests on a single motive similar to self actualization. -Personality formed by the present and how it is consciously perceived. -Most important precursor to actualization: unconditional positive regard -Love and acceptance regardless of childs behavior -Leads to self-acceptance rather than conditions of worth -No part of self need be repressed -Self-actualization becomes possible -Epitome of psychological health

    33. Each of us is like an acorn, unless our environment prohibits it, we are primed for growth and fulfillment. A growth promoting environment requires three conditions: Genuineness-Honesty with emotions. Acceptance-Unconditional Positive Regard: An attitude of total acceptance toward another person (a.k.a. grace). Empathy-Sharing and mirroring our feelings. Humanistic Psychology Carl Rogers Rogerss Theory of Personality -Genuineness, acceptance, and empathy nurture growth in the patient-client, parent-child, teacher-student relationships. -The good life is a process, not a state of being -To be fully functioning means to be open to the constant flow of our existence. -Conditional positive regardmost parents love their children as long as the children do what is expected of them. -Unconditional positive regardaccepted, loved, prized, no matter what we do. -Under these conditions, children no longer feel they need to deny parts of themselves-Genuineness, acceptance, and empathy nurture growth in the patient-client, parent-child, teacher-student relationships. -The good life is a process, not a state of being -To be fully functioning means to be open to the constant flow of our existence. -Conditional positive regardmost parents love their children as long as the children do what is expected of them. -Unconditional positive regardaccepted, loved, prized, no matter what we do. -Under these conditions, children no longer feel they need to deny parts of themselves

    34. Rogers differs to some extent from Maslow on the characteristics of the psychologically healthy person, listing the following. an openness to, and freshness of appreciation of, all experience; a tendency to live fully in every moment; the ability to be guided by their instincts rather than by reason or the opinions of others; a sense of freedom in thought and action; a high degree of creativity; and the continual need to maximize ones potential. Rogers: The person is continually in the process of actualizing rather than actualized. Humanistic Psychology Carl Rogers Rogerss Theory of Personality -Mother-child relationship: key to actualization -Important in terms its effect on the childs sense of self -Positive regard: The unconditional love of a mother for her infant. -With positive regard, child will have a healthy personality -If mothers love is conditional on proper behavior (conditional positive regard), child internalizes her attitude -Develops conditions of worth: feels praiseworthy only when acts in parentally approved ways -Tries not to behave in disapproved ways -True self remains undeveloped -In order to avoid rejection, curtails aspects of self -Mother-child relationship: key to actualization -Important in terms its effect on the childs sense of self -Positive regard: The unconditional love of a mother for her infant. -With positive regard, child will have a healthy personality -If mothers love is conditional on proper behavior (conditional positive regard), child internalizes her attitude -Develops conditions of worth: feels praiseworthy only when acts in parentally approved ways -Tries not to behave in disapproved ways -True self remains undeveloped -In order to avoid rejection, curtails aspects of self

    35. Humanistic Psychology Carl Rogers Person Centered Therapy A central feature of personality is ones self-concept, all the thoughts and feelings we have in response to the question, Who am I? To assess our self-concept, we might be asked to describe our ideal and actual selves, if they are similar, our self-concepts will be positive. Successively closer ratings is a measure of personal growth. Client is responsible for change Assumes one can consciously and rationally alter ones thoughts and behavior

    36. Humanistic Psychology Carl Rogers Criticisms and Contributions Criticisms Lack of specificity about innate potential for self-actualization Emphasis on subjective conscious experiences Exclusion of unconscious factors Research support of both theory and therapy 1960s: Part of human potential humanistic psychology movements 1946: President of the American Psychological Association APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award APA Distinguished Professional contribution award

    37. The Fate of Humanistic Psychology Formalization of movement 1961: Journal of Humanistic Psychology 1962: American Association for Humanistic Psychology 1971: became a division of APA 1986: humanistic psychology archive started at University of California at Santa Barbara 1989: The Humanistic Psychologist became journal of the APA Division of Humanistic Psychology

    38. Some characteristics of a school of thought Definition of psychology different than those of behaviorism and psychoanalysis passionate conviction Not a school in eyes of the humanists themselves failed experiment (Cunningham) perceived as having little importance (Rogers) The Fate of Humanistic Psychology

    39. Not a part of the mainstream of psychological thought Practitioners in private practice rather than academia. Comparatively little research and few publications. No graduate training programs Ill-timed attacks on the psychoanalytic and behaviorism, schools already in decline. The Fate of Humanistic Psychology

    40. Contributions Within psychoanalysis, strengthened the idea that one can consciously and freely change. Indirectly facilitated the return of the experimental study of consciousness. Added to endorsement of changes already occurring in psychology. Impact on 21st century psychology The Fate of Humanistic Psychology

    41. Positive Psychology Continued humanistic theme of studying the best characteristics of humans. 1998: Martin Seligman, APA President Noted preponderance of attention to negative (e.g., Anxiety and aggression) as compared with positive (e.g., Altruism and honesty) influences. Called for more positive framework for studying the nature and potential of humans.

    42. Eager response to Seligman Constant stream of research and publications 2000: Special issue of the American Psychologist on positive psychology followed year later by 4 articles on Why Positive Psychology is necessary 2001: Area had largest increase in number of publications for last forty years 2002: Seligmans book Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment well received by psychologists and the public at large. Positive topics now covered in contemporary psychology textbooks. Positive Psychology

    43. Positive Psychology Characteristics of Happy Person Not wealth, but lack of economic resources and security can lead to unhappiness Good health not essential, but poor health can reduce happiness Seemingly unrelated to age or gender Married people happier than unmarried ones High happiness positively correlated with self-concept, internal locus of control, extraversion, and conscientiousness negatively correlated with neuroticism

    44. Contrasting views that positive psychology is legacy of humanistic psychology versus a mere repackaging. Differences between positive and humanistic psychology as well as between positive psychology and psychoanalysis. Positive psychology rests on controlled, mainly experimental research. Viewed as an extension of, not replacement for other positions. Conceptualizations and methods to the study the human condition are very different than Freuds. Positive Psychology Criticisms and Contributions