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Sources, Composition, and Properties of Solid Waste. Prepared by: Ahmed Sawalha. Presentation Outline. Sources of Solid Wastes Types of Solid Waste Composition of Solid Waste Determination of the Composition of MSW in the Field Types of Materials Recovered from MSW

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Presentation Transcript
presentation outline
Presentation Outline

Sources of Solid Wastes

Types of Solid Waste

Composition of Solid Waste

Determination of the Composition of MSW in the Field

Types of Materials Recovered from MSW

Future Changes in Waste Composition

sources and types of solid wastes

Sources and Types of Solid Wastes

  • Sources of solid wastes in a community are:
  • Residential
  • Commercial
  • Institutional
  • Construction and Demolition
  • Municipal Services
  • Treatment Plant Sites
  • Industrial
  • Agricultural
slide4

Sources and Types of Solid Wastes

  • MSW includes all the community waste with the exception of industrial process waste and agriculture wastes
  • It is important to define the various types of solid wastes that are generated and the sources to design and operate of the functional elements associated with the management of solid waste
sources and types of solid wastes5

Sources and Types of Solid Wastes

  • Table 1 provides the sources and types of solid waste within a community
nature of municipal solid waste

Nature of Municipal Solid Waste

  • Organic (Combustible)
  • Inorganic (non-combustible)
  • Putrescible
  • Recyclable
  • Hazardous
  • Infectious
composition of solid wastes

Composition of Solid Wastes

  • Composition is the term used to describe the individual components that make up a solid waste stream and their relative distribution
  • Information on the composition of solid wastes is important in evaluating equipment needs, systems and management programme and plans
slide11

Composition of Solid Wastes

  • The residential and commercial portion makes up about 50 to 75 percent of total MSW generated in a community
  • The actual percentage distribution will depend on
    • The extent of construction and demolition activities
    • The extent of the municipal services provided
    • The types of water and wastewater treatment process that are used
slide12

Composition of Solid Wastes

  • Composition is the term used to describe the individual components that make up a solid waste stream and their relative distribution
  • Information on the composition of solid wastes is important in evaluating equipment needs, systems and management programme and plans
slide13

Composition of Solid Wastes

  • The residential and commercial portion makes up about 50 to 75 percent of total MSW generated in a community.
  • The actual percentage distribution will depend on
    • The extent of construction and demolition activities
    • The extent of the municipal services provided
    • The types of water and wastewater treatment process that are used.
composition of solid waste

Composition of Solid Waste

  • The percentage distribution values for the components in MSW vary with
    • Location
    • Season
    • economic conditions
    • population
    • Social behavior
    • Climate
    • Market for waste materials
    • Other factor
determination of the composition of msw in the field

Because the heterogeneous nature of solid wastes, determination of the composition is not an easy task

  • More generalized field procedures based on common sense and random sampling technique have evolved for determining composition
  • The procedure for residential MSW can be summarized as following
    • The load is first quartered
    • One part is then selected for additional quartering unit a sample size of about 200 lb is obtained
    • It is important to maintain the integrity of each selected quarter regardless of the odor or physical decay
    • make sure that all the components are measured

Determination of the Composition of MSW in the Field

slide17

Determination of the Composition of MSW in the Field

  • The field procedure for component identification for commercial and industrial waste involves the analysis of representative waste samples taken directly from the source, not from a mixed waste load in a collection vehicle. Due to the fact that these wastes are so variable.
types of materials recovered from msw

Types of Materials Recovered from MSW

  • Aluminum
  • Paper
  • Plastics
  • Glass
  • Ferrous Metals (Iron and Steel)
  • Nonferrous waste
  • Yard waste collected separately
  • Construction and demolition wastes
slide19

Types of Materials Recovered from MSW

  • Recycling is the best way to solve solid waste management problem. This process exists in all cities . However, the recycling system differs from developing countries and developed countries .
  • Developed countries have well organized source separation and recycling system while in the developing countries the system of recycling is not effective because it is still in the hands of informal sectores
slide20

Developing Countries Have Recycling System Starting From Curbside Collection System. Separate Colored Collections Bins are Provided to Deposit Separate Waste Material

slide21

These Sorting Facilities are Well Organized and Materials are Separated for Further Processing

future changes in waste composition

Future Changes in Waste Composition

  • In terms of solid waste management planning, knowledge of future trends in the composition of solid waste and quantities are of great importance.
  • Food Waste
    • The quantity of residential food waste collected has changed significantly over the years as a result of technical advances and change in public health
    • Food processing and packaging industry and the use of kitchen food waste grinders have effected the quantity of food waste
    • The percentage of food waste, by weight, has decreased from about 14 percent in the early 1960s to about 9 percent in 1992.
future changes in waste composition26

Future Changes in Waste Composition

  • Paper and Cardboard
    • The percentage of paper and cardboard found in MSW has increased greatly over the past half century , rising from about 20 percent in the early 1940s to about 40 percent in 1992
    • if the U.S. postal rate for bulk mail were increased to first class mail, a significant reduction would occur in the amount of paper collected for disposal
  • Yard Wastes
    • The percentage of yard waste has also increased significantly, due primarily to passage of laws that prohibit burning of yard wastes.
    • By weight, yard waste currently accounts for about 16 to 24 percent of the waste stream
    • Environmental conditions such as droughts have also affected the quantities of yard wastes collected in certain locations
future changes in waste composition27

Future Changes in Waste Composition

  • Plastics
    • The percentage of plastics in solid waste has increased significantly during the past 50 years
    • the use of plastics has increased from almost non-measurable quantities in the early 1940s to between 7 and 8 percent, by weight, in 1992
    • It is anticipated the use of plastic will continue to increase, but at a slower rate than during the past 25 years