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  2. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • Both are closely linked • Analysis of statistics proves this • Evidence shows the following: Procedures not followed Proper assessment not made Continued assessment not carried out Human error major cause By breaking the chain of events (Domino effect) – this stops the event progressing and avoids the accident. Remove unsafe acts or conditions

  3. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS Why is risk assessment needed? To ensure the health and safety of workers by: Application of certain principles Evaluating unavoidable risk Taking action to reduce the risk

  4. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS Making it work – Communications Inform the company of any relevant risks Advise all involved with the task / job Continue assessing / evaluating the risks Change the procedure if the risk changes

  5. Risk: (Two elements) Likelihood that the risk will occur Consequences of the hazardous event RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTSHow to assess the risks • Definition: Hazard: • A source of potential harm or damage or situation with a potential for harm

  6. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • The principles of assessment: • Careful examination of the intended operation • Identifying possible harm and/or hazards • Evaluating the risk • Make decisions to reduce risk or accept the conditions • Take additional precautions to reduce the risk to an acceptable level.

  7. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS How to reduce the risk ? Restrict access Use of work permits – Hot, cold, enclosed space etc Warning signs Use of other guidance/publications (e.g.ISGOTT) Personal protective equipment Follow procedures Follow instructions Plan, advise, follow the plan

  8. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • Risk Assessment – The practical side • No fixed rules • The need to be simple and meaningful • Depends on ship type • Nature of operations • Type and extent of hazards and risks • USE COMMON SENSE

  9. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • What should be assessed? Who should do it? • Work activities (it is not expected to cover risks which are not reasonably foreseeable) • Record the findings (trivial risks need not be recorded) • Experienced personnel should do the assessment • Always ask for advise if required – there is a lot of expertise within the office and on other vessels that we can use.

  10. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • How to do the assessment : • Classify the work activity • Identify hazards and personnel at risk • Determine the risk • Decide if the risk is tolerable • Prepare the action plan • Review the adequacy of the plan

  11. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS A simple pro-forma can be used to record the findings. These findings should include the following: work activity hazards controls personnel at risk likelihood of harm severity of harm risk levels actions required Always include admin. details – date, time, name of assessor.

  12. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • Classifying Work Activities: • Possible ways: • Department / location on board • Stages of an operation / routine • Planned / unplanned maintenance • Defined tasks (loading/unloading) • Information required: • Tasks, duration, frequency • Location of work • Who carries out the task normally • Does the work effect others • Is training required to carry out the task

  13. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • Identifying the hazards – there are three basic questions you should ask yourself: • Is there a source of harm • Who or What could be harmed • How could the harm occur

  14. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • Categorising the hazard – some examples: • Mechanical • Electrical • Physical • Radiation • Substance • Fire and explosion • Or we can use a complimentary method>>>>>>>>>>>

  15. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • Complimentary method: During the intended work, ask the question: Could any of the following occur? • Slips or falls on the level • Fall from a height • Fall of tools, materials • Inadequate headroom • Inadequate ventilation • Hazards from plant and machinery • Manual handling

  16. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • To determine the RISK – we have to estimate the following: • The potential severity of harm • The likelihood that harm will occur

  17. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • Severity of Harm: - consider the following: • A. Part of the body to be affected • B. Nature of the harm: • Slightly harmful – cuts, bruises, dust, nuisance, irritation • Harmful – burns, lacerations, minor fractures, deafness, asthma, dermatitis, minor disability (off work) • Extremely Harmful – amputations, multiple/fatal injuries, major fractures, cancer, acute fatal diseases etc

  18. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • 1- Likelihood of Harm: • To do this, you have to check the adequacy of any control measures already in place. Such measures may be done to legal requirements. Guidance can always be found in many publications found onboard vessels – e.g. Code of Safe Working Practices, ISGOTT and other similar publications

  19. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • 2 – Likelihood of Harm: • Assess the following: • Personnel exposed • Frequency and duration of exposure to harm • Effects of the failure of power/water • Effects of the failure of plant and safety devices. • Exposure to the elements • Protection given by PPE • Possibility of an unsafe act by persons who: • May not know the hazards • Have insufficient knowledge, physical capacity or skills to do the job • Under-estimates the risks • Under –estimates the practicality of safe working methods


  21. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • TRIVIAL – No actions, no records required • MODERATE – Reduce the risk, further assessment necessary • INTOLERABLE – Do not start /continue the work. If the risk cannot be reduced, the work must remain prohibited.

  22. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • So what do we do after the assessment? • It should result in a plan of action • It should require the implementation of controls to reduce the risk: • Use safe substances instead of dangerous ones • Use low voltage electrical appliances • Adopt the work to the individual • Ensure technical and procedural controls are in place • Machinery guards in place and used

  23. RISK ASSESSMENT & ACCIDENTS • Doing the job !! • Ensure emergency and evacuation plans implemented • Emergency equipment to be available • Supervision and monitoring • Continually re-assessing the task • Implementation and revisions • Resist the pressure to complete the job by a set time


  25. ISM CODE 9.1: The SMS should include procedures ensuring that non-conformities, accidents and hazardous situations are reported to the company, investigated and analysed with the objective of improving safety and pollution prevention. IACS GUIDELINES: Records of non-conformities, accidents and hazardous situations and relevant investigations produced by shipboard personnel and/or by the company from operations or internal audits, should be provided to the auditor during audits to demonstrate effective functioning of the SMS ACCIDENTS & HAZARDOUS OCCURRENCES

  26. ACCIDENTS & HAZARDOUS OCCURRENCES • Definitions: • INCIDENT – An uncontrolled or unplanned event that took place • ACCIDENT – An incident involving injury or damage to life, the environment, the ship or cargo. • HAZARDOUS OCC. – A event which has the potential to be an accident and where the situation was found to exist not as a result of a planned and positive inspection. The event is discovered before it becomes and accident.

  27. ACCIDENTS & HAZARDOUS OCCURRENCES • HSC Reporting Requirements: This depends on the severity of the incident, immediate contact must be made by telephone for incidents such as; Groundings, fires, loss of life, collisions etc. However – these incidents and all others must be reported using HSC Forms 106 – example of which I will hand out.

  28. ACCIDENTS & HAZARDOUS OCCURRENCES • Information on Forms 106 • Form 106: • General details • Categories – used for analysis • Description of the incident • Immediate Corrective action • Preventive actions • Follow up • Close out

  29. ACCIDENTS & HAZARDOUS OCCURRENCES • So why report ? • Because the ISM Code requires it (SOLAS – LAW) • Analysis of information allows recommendations which may: • Change a procedure • Change instructions • Safety advice to vessels – groups/individuals/office • CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT - OBJECTIVES MUST BE MET!!!!

  30. ACCIDENTS & HAZARDOUS OCCURRENCES • Passing on information – it is no good gathering all this information, analysing it and then doing nothing with the results. Result must be promulgated to all that need to know. This is achieved in the following way in HSC: • Company Safety committee Meetings • Annual Management Reviews • Summaries of major incidents/accidents • Results of the analysis • Changing the documented system • Safety Bulletins • Training onboard – by vessels staff, Supts, Q&S Officers

  31. ACCIDENTS & HAZARDOUS OCCURRENCES • How do we compare with others? • This is done by carrying out the analysis based on the Marine Injury Reporting Guidelines (OCIMF) • It produces arbitary figures which can be compared between companies: • LTI – Lost Time Injury ( 19 , 8) • LTIF – Lost Time Injury Frequency (1.94 , 2.08) • TRCF – Total Recordable Case Frequency • ITOSF – Informal Tanker Safety forum

  32. ACCIDENTS & HAZARDOUS OCCURRENCES • PROBLEMS !! • Reporting from vessels • Identifying Hazardous Occurrences – Accidents are easy (they have already happened). • Understanding – that’s for us to teach/train • SOLVING THE PROBLEMS !! • Training by vessels staff • Encourage the crew to report • Training by visiting Q&S Officers

  33. HANSEATIC SHIPPING • Thank you for your attention. • Use some common sense • Any questions ????????????????? • THE END