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Review of Musical Elements. Rhythm Intervals Harmony Modality Instrumentation Form Pitch Chromatic Texture Climax Duration Dynamics Dissonant Tempo Tone color Timbre Melody Sequence. Chapter 18: The Late Romantics. Late Romantic Program Music. Realism

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Review of musical elements
Review of Musical Elements

  • Rhythm Intervals

  • Harmony Modality

  • Instrumentation Form

  • Pitch Chromatic

  • Texture Climax

  • Duration Dynamics

  • Dissonant Tempo

  • Tone color Timbre

  • Melody Sequence

Chapter 18 the late romantics

Chapter 18:The Late Romantics

Late Romantic Program Music

Key terms


Symphonic poem

Theme transformation

Key Terms

The late romantics
The Late Romantics

  • 1848 a year of failed revolutions

    • In France, Italy, & various German states

    • Hopes for political freedom seemed to die

    • Many Romantic aspirations died as well

    • Romanticism lived on, but as nostalgia

  • 1848 a convenient point of demarcation

    • Early Romantics were dying – Mendelssohn, Chopin, & Schumann died 1847-1856

    • Revolution & exile transformed Wagner’s career

Late romantic program music
Late Romantic Program Music

  • Liszt wrote a series of symphonic poems in the 1850s

    • A new genre – a one-movement orchestral work with a program in a free musical form

    • Word “poem” emphasized literary connection

    • Could be based on a poem, play, or other work

    • Liszt’s works include Les préludes & Hamlet

    • Gave new impetus to late Romantic music

    • Genre was used by Smetana, Chaikovsky, Musorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Strauss, Sibelius, and others

Pyotr ilyich chaikovsky 1840 1893
Pyotr Ilyich Chaikovsky(1840-1893)

  • Music not a “respectable” Russian career

    • Chaikovsky was fortunate to study at the brand-new St. Petersburg Conservatory

    • Professor at Moscow Conservatory at 26

    • Long subsidized by wealthy recluse Nadezhda von Meck – though they never met!

  • A prolific composer

    • 6 symphonies, 11 operas, symphonic poems, chamber music, songs, concertos, ballets

    • One of the best-loved melodists in music history

Chaikovsky romeo and juliet
Chaikovsky, Romeo and Juliet

  • One of several of his symphonic poems

    • Lengthy pieces in one movement

    • He uses free forms that adopt features of sonata form, rondo, & so on

  • Romeo and Juliet followed outlines of the original play in a general way

  • Easy to link themes to aspects of the play

    • Surging, Romantic melody for the two lovers

    • Angry, agitated theme for families’ enmity

    • Hymnlike theme for kindly Friar Laurence

Romeo and juliet slow introduction
Romeo and JulietSlow Introduction

  • Introduction already heavy with drama

  • Somber, solemn Hymn theme statements

    • In low clarinets & bassoons

  • Anguished strings answer

    • Forecasting an unhappy outcome

  • High woodwind announcement

    • Punctuated by strumming harp

  • The above repeats & builds to a climax

    • Over dramatic drum roll

Romeo and juliet allegro 1
Romeo and JulietAllegro (1)

  • Begins with fast Vendetta (Fate) theme

    • Short, vigorous rhythmic motives

    • Climax punctuated by cymbal claps

Romeo and juliet allegro 2
Romeo and JulietAllegro (2)

  • Shifts to highly romantic Love theme

    • First heard in English horn & violas

    • Interrupted by a gentle sighing figure

    • Returns to Love theme in woodwinds

Romeo and juliet allegro 3
Romeo and JulietAllegro (3)

  • Lively development section follows

    • Reminiscent of sonata form development

    • Battle between Vendetta & Hymn themes

Romeo and juliet free recapitulation 1
Romeo and JulietFree Recapitulation (1)

  • Vendetta theme returns in original form

    • Reminiscent of sonata form recapitulation

  • Sighing motive & Love theme also return

    • Big, ecstatic statement of Love theme

Romeo and juliet free recapitulation 2
Romeo and JulietFree Recapitulation (2)

  • Ending broken up & interrupted – a reference to the drama’s tragic outcome

  • Vendetta & Hymn themes combine once more

    • They build to a huge climax & die down unwillingly

  • Romeo and juliet coda
    Romeo and JulietCoda

    • Introduces transformations of Love theme

    • Begins with broken version of Love theme

      • Over funeral drum taps in timpani

    • Woodwinds sound an optimistic note

      • Transformation of sighing motive

    • Harp strumming introduces Love theme

      • Beautiful new cadential version surges upward ecstatically

      • Suggestion that their love transcends death?