Inquiry Dr. Charles Ophardt EDU 370
Defining Inquiry • Inquiry is how scientists study the natural world- Part of nature of science- Processes of science • Inquiry as a Teaching TechniqueProblem solvingStudent centeredHand’s on Activities
Inquiry as a Process of Science • Scientific method • Question • Hypothesis • Experimentation controlling and changing variables • Observations and Data Gathering • Conclusions and Explanations
Inquiry - Process of Science II • Scientific method • A step-by-step process that may be followed in order to conduct scientific studies. • Is quite restrictive in its scope. Scientists usually do not walk through the method sequentially. May form a new hypothesis during experimentation. • Studies based upon observation in which no experimentation is performed are also valid scientific studies.
Inquiry - Process of Science III • Hypothesis • A student may tell you "A hypothesis is an educated guess.” This is not an adequate response. • A hypothesis is a statement, based on previous observations, that can be tested scientifically.
Inquiry - Process of Science IV • Observations and inferences. • Observations describe an environment based on our five senses. • Inference is bringing our past experience into making a judgment based on an observation. It is also the start of an explanation. • Scientific facts are observable phenomenon in a particular situation. "Dinosaurs were cold-blooded" is not a scientific fact, because this phenomenon cannot be observed
Inquiry - Process of Science V • Theories. • In common usage, theories are often ideas that have not been validated. • In science, a theory has a much stronger meaning. • Scientific theories are broadly based concepts that make sense of a large body of observations and experimentation. • Theories successfully tie together a huge amount of information that has been validated
Inquiry - Process of Science VI - Nature of Theories. • Because inductive reasoning starts with data, scientific theories must be based on data. • Scientific theories must be logically falsifiable. • Scientific theories must be empirically testable, or lead to predictions or retrodictions that are testable. • Scientific theories must make verified predictions or retrodictions. • Scientific theories must concern reproducible results. • Scientific theories must not postulate anything unnecessary.
Features of Classroom Inquiry • Students engaged: • Science questions and problems • Give priority to evidence to develop and evaluate explanations • Formulate explanation from evidence • Evaluate explanations • Communicate explanations
Inquiry Based Instruction • Structured Inquiry • Guided Inquiry • Open Inquiry
Structured Inquiry • Students given: • Problem to solve • Method to solve problem • Necessary Materials • But not expected outcomes • Student expected to discover concept and generalize from data collected
Guided Inquiry • Student need to: • In addition to the items in structured inquiry, • Must figure out their own method to solve the problem
Open Inquiry • In addition to the items in structured inquiry, • Must also formulate their own question • Must figure out their own method to solve the problem • Most closely “mimics” actions of scientists
Inquiry Modelsof Teaching • Inductive Inquiry • Discovery Learning • Problem solving • Deductive Inquiry
Inductive Inquiry • Start with simple questions • Observe lots of objects • Gather information • Find patterns • Discover concepts and theories
Deductive Inquiry • Reverse of Inductive Inquiry • Give concepts, principles, or theories • Activities are designed to help understand concept • Look for evidence • Apply concepts
Discovery Learning • Very similar to deductive inquiry • Designed to assimilate new concepts and principles • Engaged in observing, measuring, Inferring, predicting, classifying
Problems Solving • Can be student generated • Not traditional numerical problems • Can be more global in nature • Could focus on process skills
References • Inquiry Models of Teachinghttp://scied.gsu.edu/Hassard/mos/7.4.html • Inquiry and NSES http://books.nap.edu/html/inquiry_addendum/ch2.html • http://teacherlink.org/content/science/class_examples/Bflypages/nos.htm