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Exercise in older people . Dr Richard A. Ferguson. Musculo -Skeletal Muscle Biology Research Group School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences Loughborough University.

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Dr Richard A. Ferguson


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slide1

Exercise in older people

Dr Richard A. Ferguson

Musculo-Skeletal Muscle Biology Research Group

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Loughborough University

slide2

“The biggest issue is loss of function. Not everyone has cancer, not everyone has Alzheimer's, but almost everyone loses function”.

David Muller

Dean of Medical Education

Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City

slide3

The background issues …

  • Skeletal musclefunction
  • Aerobic function
slide10

Resistance / strength exercise

Age range 60 – 72 yrs

80% 1-RM (progressive)

3 sets of 8 reps

3 days per week for 12 weeks

Frontera et al (1988)

slide11

Resistance / strength exercise

  • Even in VERY old people

Age range 85 – 97 yrs

80% 1-RM (progressive)

3 sets of 8 reps

3 days per week for 12 weeks

Harridge et al (1999)

slide12

Resistance / strength exercise

  • Even in VERY old people

Age range 85 – 97 yrs

80% 1-RM (progressive)

3 sets of 8 reps

3 days per week for 12 weeks

Harridge et al (1999)

slide15

UK Physical Activity Guidelines

Older adults should also undertake physical activity to improve muscle strength on at least two days a week.

slide17

Physical function – systematic reviews

“…. resistance training increased muscle strength and had a modest significant effect on some measures of physical functioning (e.g., gait speed)”.

slide18

Physical function – systematic reviews

“Evidence shows that older people who exercise their muscles against a force or resistance become stronger. They also improve their performance of simple activities such as walking, climbing steps, or standing up from a chair more quickly. The improvement in activities such as getting out of a chair or stair climbing is generally greater than walking speed”

Liu & Latham (2009)

slide19

Physical function – systematic reviews

“Evidence shows that older people who exercise their muscles against a force or resistance become stronger. They also improve their performance of simple activities such as walking, climbing steps, or standing up from a chair more quickly. The improvement in activities such as getting out of a chair or stair climbing is generally greater than walking speed”

Liu & Latham (2009)

slide21

Alternative interventions

  • Muscle power = force x velocity

Narici et al. (2005)

slide22

Alternative interventions

  • Traditional resistance training velocity

Narici et al. (2005)

slide23

Alternative interventions

  • High velocity resistance training

Narici et al. (2005)

slide24

InVEST – Increased Velocity Exercise Specific to Task

Age ~74 yrs

3 days per week for 16 weeks

NIA – National Institute of Aging strength training program (2 sets of 10)

concentric phase performed slowly (3 sec)

InVEST – task specific movement pattern

concentric phase performed as quickly as possible

SPPB – short physical performance battery

Bean et al (2009)

slide28

“human muscle age-related molecular processes appear distinct from the processes directly regulated by those of physical activity”

slide30

Marr explained he had fallen into the "terrible" trap of believing what he read in newspapers, which encouraged people to "take very intensive exercise in short bursts - and that's the way to health".

He went on: "I went onto a rowing machine and gave it everything I had, and had a strange feeling afterwards - a blinding headache, and flashes of light - served out the family meal, went to bed, woke up the next morning lying on the floor unable to move.

slide31

Summary

  • Resistance training into later life attenuates the decline in muscle strength
  • Does not necessarily enhance functional ability RESEARCH FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES ;-)
  • Large variability in “responsiveness” to exercise interventions
  • Exercise for older people should be personalised (baseline physiology / genetic screening!!)
  • RESEARCH FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES ;-)
slide32

THANK YOU

R.Ferguson@lboro.ac.uk

http://twitter.com/ncsemem