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  1. Developing an IT ApplicationUsing Advantage:Genä: Activity Modeling

  2. Objectives of Activity Analysis • To understand the processes of the firm independent of organization structure, existing IS, and technology • To verify the understanding with users • To lay the foundation for system design

  3. Business Activities • Function – a high level process, a group of activities that together completely support one aspect of furthering the mission of the business (e.g., AMP of Resources, Conversion, MSC of Products/Services) • Process – a group of related events • Elementary process – an event, and maintenance of RALs (CRUDE)

  4. Processes • Results from the decomposition of a function • A process is a lower level activity (or activities) that does one of: • produce outputs necessary outside the business • gathers new information for the business • produces new information for the business • controls things in the business

  5. Naming a Process • Processes (events) are named using a verb (action) plus a noun (an entity type or attribute), e.g. TAKE ORDER, STAFF PROJECT

  6. Process versus Procedure • Process - what the business does, a specific action the business requires, e.g. CHARGE CUSTOMER • Procedure - how the action is carried out, e.g. PRINT INVOICE

  7. Activity Analysis Techniques • Decomposition - Functions decompose into smaller functions or processes, processes into smaller processes. This is represented in the Activity Hierarchy Diagram • Dependency Analysis - This shows the conditions necessary to enable one process/event to execute and thus the dependency of one process/event on another. This is shown in the Activity Dependency Diagram (ADD confirms the AHD).

  8. Hierarchy Diagramming ROOT FUNCTION A FUNCTION B PROCESS X PROCESS Y

  9. Decomposition Rules • Functions may be decomposed into sub-functions or processes • Processes may be decomposed into sub-processes, and ultimately, elementary processes • An activity that is decomposed must be broken down into two or more activities (parent has at least two children) • An activity is totally described by its subordinates (sum of children should explain entire parent)

  10. Functions and processes may exist at the same level, but only as decompositions of different parents FUNCTION A SUB-FUNCTION F A is a more complex function than B SUB-FUNCTION G FUNCTION B PROCESS X PROCESS Y

  11. Decomposition Using Business Events • Identify process that follows an important business event • Event - Customer returns defective product • Subsequent events (making up the process) - Give customer an exchange, Refund money, Return defective product to supplier

  12. Elementary Processes, the Lowest Level of the Hierarchy • Achieves a useful business result • Leaves the business in a consistent state, i.e. preserves referential integrity, data integrity of attribute values, and integrity of the business transaction • In general performed by one person, in one location, until complete

  13. Integrity of the Data Can users trust the data stored in the database? • The two events should be modeled as one elementary process, because executing only one means that the value of inventory is inconsistent with the sale recorded. • These would be sub-elemental SELL PRODUCT REDUCE INVENTORY

  14. Activity Dependency Analysis • Determines the conditions necessary to enable the execution of a process (lowest level process is an event or maintenance of RALs). • Since one process (or event) can supply the conditions necessary for another process to execute, this shows dependencies between processes (events).

  15. Activity Dependency Diagramming • Verifies the process decomposition • Adds to business understanding by identifying data needed to execute a process and the information that it provides

  16. Activity Dependency Occurs When • The post condition of one process is the necessary precondition of another process REVIEW INVENTORY ITEM LOW STOCK PLACE ORDER

  17. Dependency Types Sequential Dependency NEGOTIATE PRICE SELECT PRODUCT SELECT DISTRIBUTOR

  18. Dependency Types Parallel Dependency Dependent events INSTALL ASSET RECEIVE ORDER PLACE IN WAREHOUSE Prerequisite event PAY FOR ORDER

  19. Dependency Types Mutually Exclusive Dependency MAKE JOB OFFER INTERVIEW APPLICANT O REJECT APPLICANT

  20. Activity Dependency Diagram for “Acquire and Pay for Fixed Assets” Sequential dependency Mutually exclusive dependency Parallel dependency

  21. Events and External Objects • An external or temporalevent is something that occurs which then triggers some response, e.g. End of Month can trigger INVENTORY REVIEW • External objects (agents) provide data to a process or receive some results from the process e.g. CUSTOMER, VENDOR, GOVERNMENT AGENCY • Both (1) external events and (2) external objects can be depicted in ADD’s