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Growth of Towns & Cities. New Farm Technologies Heavy Plow, water mill, and windmill Less people need on farms moved to cities to make money Free Towns Towns run by local lords; charged fees & taxes Merchants asked Kings to charter new towns; paid taxes to the Kings

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Growth of Towns & Cities

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    1. Growth of Towns & Cities New Farm Technologies Heavy Plow, water mill, and windmill Less people need on farms moved to cities to make money Free Towns Towns run by local lords; charged fees & taxes Merchants asked Kings to charter new towns; paid taxes to the Kings Under merchants towns prospered, grew

    2. Growth of Towns & Cities Guilds Guilds - trade organizations in which all members set standards and prices for their products Apprentice – someone who spent many years with a skilled crafter to learn the basic skills of the craft Journeymen - a person who has learned the basics of a career as an apprentice but is still learning from masters and has not yet opened his own shop

    3. Daily Life in Cities • Dark and unpleasant • No public sanitation – disease a common threat • Crime and fire were constant threat • Churches • Eating halls • Entertainment • Allowed for the spread of Arts and new ideas

    4. Section 3 Art and Culture Of the Middle Ages • During the Middle Ages, great achievements were made in the visual arts, literature, and thinking and learning

    5. Visual Arts • Gothic Architecture • Gothic – building style that used advances in engineering to make churches taller and brighter than earlier churches • Flying buttresses – supports that helped hold up church walls from the outside allowing for much higher ceilings and an interior that had no columns

    6. Visual Arts • Gothic Architecture • Larger windows allowed more light • Stained glass showed scenes from bible or lives of saints • Exterior had statues of saints, kings figures from Old Testament • Gargoyles

    7. Visual Arts • Illumination • Illumination – the process of decorating written manuscript with pictures or designs • Tapestry • Large woven wall hangings • Hung in castles to prevent drafts • Bayeux Tapestry tells the story of William the Conqueror

    8. Literature • Religious Texts • Sermons how people should live • Interpretations of the Bible • Lives of Saints • Songs and Poems • Latin • Hildegard of Bingen – a famous medieval nun who was both a poet and a composer

    9. Literature • Epics and Romances • Epic poems told exciting tales related to wars & heroes • Song of Roland –told the story of Charlemagne’s fight against the Muslims • Chivalry – a code of honor that knights were supposed to live by; it required knights to be generous and courteous to women and other knights • Troubadours – wandering singers who preformed epics and romances

    10. Literature • Major Works • The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer • Tells the story of pilgrims traveling to the town of Canterbury • Description of the characters helps historians know what life was like in the Middle Ages • Helped increase the use of written English in England • The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri • Composed of three parts (Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso) • Tells the story of an imaginary trip that Dante takes through the afterlife • Helped spread and shape the Italian language

    11. Thinking and Learning • Alchemy • Thought that people could base metals like lead into gold • Heated materials to dissolve or vaporize them • Gained practical experience in Chemistry that helped later scientists. • Universities • Increased the flow of Greek learning into Europe • Latin Grammar, rhetoric, logic, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, music, theology, medicine and law

    12. Thinking and Learning • The Teachings of Thomas Aquinas • Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)– influential scholar who argued that classical ideas could be used to improve people’s understanding of Christian teachings. • Scholasticism – a combination of Christian faith and rational though set forth by Thomas Aquinas

    13. Section 4 Challenges of the Late Middle Ages • In the late Middle Ages, Europeans faced many challenges, including religious crises, wars and a deadly plague.

    14. Religious Crises • Heresy • Heresy – Beliefs that oppose the church’s official teachings • People began to de-emphasize the role of clergy and the sacraments • Threatened the social order • Inquisitions –Legal procedures supervised by special judges who tired suspected heretics • Friars –members of religious orders who took vows of poverty and obedience and lived among the people to whom they preached • Francis of Assisi & Dominic of Osma • Christian Education used as a way to fight heresy • In 1208 Pope Innocent III called for war on heretics in Southern France

    15. Religious Crises • The Papacy in Dispute • In 1309 the Pope fled to Avignon (France) • Seventy years later Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome and died • Disagreement led to two Popes one in Rome and one in Avignon • Dispute lasted almost 40 years

    16. Wars and Conflict • Hundred Years’ War (116) • Hundred Years’ War –a war between Britain and France that began as a dispute over the throne of France • French king died without a son • King Edward III of England was nephew • France did not want to be ruled by English • Chose regent to be king, became King Philip VI of France • Joan of Arc –peasant girl who led the French into battle during the Hundred Years’ War and won several battles before she was captured, tried, and executed by British • King Charles VII of France rallied his army after Joan of Arc’s death and drove British out of France

    17. Wars and Conflict • War of the Roses • War of the Roses –conflict between the York and Lancaster families for the English throne • Henry VII –nobleman whose rise to king ended the War of the Roses and started a new era in English history

    18. Black Death • Black Death –a devastating plague that swept across Europe between 1347 and 1351 • Origins • May have been two different diseases; bubonic plague (spread by fleas that lived on rats) and pneumonic plague (spread from person to person) • Started with Mongol armies laying siege to Black Sea Port • Rats with fleas got on merchant ships; fleas spread disease to humans • Spread quickly through Europe, first coastal towns, then inland

    19. Black Death • Course of the Disease • Killed quickly within a few days • Spread very easy, anyone treating sick usually got sick and died as well • Effects • Europe and China lost one-third of their population • People blamed God for the plague; anti-clericalism began to rise • Anti-Semitic beliefs increased in Europe • The manor system collapsed as people left their manors