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Glass Kulinich Ekaterina, Ph.D , Chair of Silicate Technology and Nanotechnology . Glass is a type of non-crystalline or amorphous solid . Glass generally refers to hard , brittle , transparent material . Examples of such materials include , but are not limited to : soda-lime glass
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In the technical sense, glass is an inorganic product of fusion which has been cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing
The amorphous structure of glassy Silica (SiO2). Long range order is not present, but we can seeshort-range order with tetrahedral arrangement of Oxygen (O) atoms around the Silicon (Si) atoms.
In the scientific sense the term glass is often extended to all amorphous solids (and melts that easily form amorphous solids), including plastics, resins, or other silica-free amorphous solids
In addition, besides traditional melting techniques, any other means of preparation are considered, such as:
ion implantation, and the sol-gel method. However, glass science commonly includes only inorganic amorphous solids, while plastics and similar organics are covered by polymer science, biology and further scientific disciplines
The optical and physical properties of glass
make it suitable for applications such as
The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. It was in the Roman glassmaking center at Trier, Germany. Probably, the late-Latin term glesum originated Germanic word Glas for a transparent, lustrous substances.
Roman glass found at Begram, Afghanistan, then part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
Roman glass from the 2nd century
Samples of fused silica
However, the soda makes the glass water soluble, which is usually unnecessary, so
lime (calcium oxide (CaO)
magnesium oxide (MgO) and
aluminium oxide (Al2O3)
are added to provide for a better chemical stability of glass
The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74 percent silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass. Soda-lime glasses account for about 90 percent of manufactured glass.
Borosilicate glasses are most well known for having very low coefficient of thermal expansion (~5 × 10-6 /°C at 20°C). Borosilicate glass is very resistant to thermal shock, much more than any other common glass
Borosilicate glass was first developed by German glassmaker Otto Schott in the late 19th century. After Corning Glass Works introduced Pyrex in 1915, it became a synonym for borosilicate glass in the English-speaking world
chemical laboratory equipment,
cookware, lighting, and in
certain cases, windows
In the hot end are situated furnaces, machines that produce the containers (forming machines) and annealing ovens.
In the cold end– the aria for inspection and packaging equipment.
The batch house holds the raw materials for glass, primarily sand, soda ash, limestone, feldspar
These materials are received (typically by truck or rail transport) and elevated into storage silos. From the silos they are
into a batch (charge) of several tonnes, using common glass batch calculation procedures. The batch is mixed and sent to silos over the furnace
Quartz sand (silica) as main raw material for commercial glass production
There are currently two primary methods of making a glass container –
In both cases a stream of molten glass at its plastic temperature (1050°C-1200°C) is cut by a shearing blade to form a cylinder of glass called a gob.
The most widely used forming machine arrangement is the individual section machine (or IS machine). This machine has a bank of 5 -20 identical sections. The sections are in a row, and the gobs feed into each section via a moving chute, called the gob distributor. Sections make one, two, three or four containers simultaneously and the gobs fall into the blank moulds in parallel.
Typical faults include: