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EXPERT GROUP MEETING: Social Integration UN/DESA, 2-4 November 2009. Promotion of Inclusive Poverty Eradication and Productive Employment and Decent Work Policies to advance Social Integration Presentation by Faith Innerarity. Outline of Presentation. S ituational Analysis

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expert group meeting social integration un desa 2 4 november 2009

EXPERT GROUP MEETING: Social IntegrationUN/DESA, 2-4 November 2009

Promotion of Inclusive Poverty Eradication and Productive Employment and

Decent Work Policies to advance Social Integration

Presentation by

Faith Innerarity

outline of presentation
Outline of Presentation
  • Situational Analysis
    • Jamaica at a Glance
    • Poverty and Unemployment
  • Policy Responses
    • Poverty Eradication
    • Employment Creation and Decent Work Agenda
    • Expanding Education, Training and Employment Opportunities for Young People
    • Community Development Initiatives
  • Conclusion and Recommendations – Way Forward
poverty eradication programme
Poverty Eradication Programme
  • Reform of the Social Safety Net which commenced in 2001 represents central component of Poverty Eradication Programme
  • Design of a conditional cash transfer programme to ensure:
    • Better targeting of the poor
    • Linking of benefits to human capital investment in education and health


PATH Beneficiary Target Groups






Pregnant &lactating

Elderly (> 60yrs)


Persons with Disabilities

Adult poor (18-59 yrs.)


programme outcome targeting
Programme Outcome: Targeting
  • From the standpoint of redistribution and coverage of the poorest and most vulnerable PATH has been fairly successful in terms of its targeting mechanism.
  • However, concerns in terms of errors of inclusion and exclusion have had to be addressed.

PATH Beneficiaries Household Characteristics

Source: PATH Participant Survey 2003, JSLC 2002

programme outcome targeting1
Programme Outcome: Targeting
  • Beneficiary Identification System (BIS) has had to be reviewed to address, among other issues, the disproportionate selection of households from urban centres including the Kingston Metropolitan area.
  • This is linked to the complexity of having a single poverty measurement instrument that can adequately capture the distinguishing features of rural versus urban poverty.

Distribution of PATH Beneficiaries

Compared with Distribution of Poor and Share in Total Population

By Parish


*Based on Population Census 2001

health and education outcome
Health and Education Outcome
  • PATH has resulted in increased school attendance.
  • There has been an increase in the use preventative health care services. Health care visits for children 0-6 years increased by 38%.
supply challenges
Supply Challenges
  • In respect of PATH compliance requirements a number of supply side difficulties have been encountered in relation to the physical and human capabilities of health facilities and schools.
  • Specific concerns include the need to expand primary health care capacity at the community level and increase secondary school places for the 15-17 years age group for which a gap still exist.
beneficiary support programmes
Beneficiary Support Programmes
  • In terms of the beneficiary households, the high cost of transportation, especially in rural areas has impacted negatively on affordability of schooling. Special measures are therefore required to address this issue.
  • Availability of subsidised lunches found to be critical for attendance and in this regard, the School Feeding Programme needs to be strengthened.
coverage gaps
Coverage Gaps
  • Incidence of poverty 14.8% in 2005
  • Poverty Line 2005
    • Individual J$63,717
    • Family of five J$240,816
  • Estimated 394,000 persons are below the poverty line
  • PATH covers 236,000
  • Approximately 158,000 persons below the poverty line are not covered by PATH
  • These are mainly the working poor
working poor
Working Poor
  • “ The working poor are individuals engage in either paid or self employment who belong to households with an adult equivalent per capita household expenditure (or income) that falls below a specified poverty line” (Labour Market and Poverty Studies Unit, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago)
working poor results of ilo study
Working Poor: Results of ILO Study
  • Males dominate the working poor
  • The working poor are clustered in the 25 to 44 age group
  • The working poor have lower levels of education
  • The working poor are employed in a variety of sectors, but most are found in agriculture, community and social services, construction and wholesale/retail sales.
  • The working poor work fewer hours than their non-poor counterparts
  • In Jamaica 34% of the working poor are in agriculture.
policy responses
Policy Responses
  • Ratification of ILO Conventions on core labour standards including “Minimum Age of Employment’’ and the “Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour”.
  • CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) and focus on the establishment of a “social floor”
  • Introduction of CARICOM Reciprocal Social Security agreement
  • Strong commitment to tripartism
challenges productive employment and decent work agenda
Challenges: Productive Employment and Decent Work Agenda
  • Increasing size and complexity of the informal sector, including a-typical and non-standard forms of employment relationships in formal establishment
  • High levels of youth unemployment
  • Gender inequalities in the labour market
  • Need for active labour market policies
  • Discrimination against persons with disabilities
  • Complex range of labour migration issues
options for expanded opportunities for vulnerable
Options for Expanded Opportunities for Vulnerable
  • Welfare to work initiative focusing on persons in the economically active age-group in PATH beneficiary and other poor households.
  • Young school leavers – focus on school to work transition process with link to Jamaica Youth Employment Network (JYEN) and other initiatives.
  • Social pension
welfare to work
Welfare to Work
  • Training and job placement for members of beneficiary household in economically active age groups
  • Promotion of entrepreneurial activities through revamped rehabilitation grant programme
  • Community based interventions
  • Provision of range of referral services
school to work transition
School to Work Transition
  • Support for PATH beneficiaries beyond age 17 (8,000- 10,000 PATH School Leavers annually)
    • Assistance for further education (Government guarantee of Students Loans)
    • Stipend for skills training/apprenticeship
    • Provision of Job placement services
    • Promotion of Entrepreneurship (grants or soft loans for income generating projects)
    • Training centre for Young persons with disabilities in Western Jamaica
school to work transition1
School to Work Transition
  • At risk youth targeted:
    • Youths in rural areas and inner-city communities
    • Youths with disabilities
    • HIV/AIDS victims
community development initiatives
Community Development Initiatives

Human and Social Capital Investment

Economic Enablement

Provision of Basic Social Services

Lorenzo Smith, a youth of the Grants Pen Inner-city Community now has a better chance in life. He worked temporarily at the Mega Mart Super Store and is now involved in a Human Employment and Resource Training (HEART ) programme

community development
Community Development

Economic Enablement

Security and Justice

Police and residents join forces to fight crime

Andre Fairclough is now seen as a positive role model in his family and community as he engages in the working world.

high achievers
High Achievers

“Inner-City Student Boasts Highest Test Score on National Exam”

“Deaf student soars”

deepening democracy
Deepening Democracy
  • “Launch of 2008 Democracy Survey-Longitudinal report provides insights on views in the public domain” , Daily Gleaner February 2009
Prime Minister the Hon. Bruce Golding delivers the keynote address at the launch of the National Integrity Action Forum.

Seated are Dr. Karen Hilliard, USAID/Jamaica Mission Director, and Prof. Trevor Munroe of the Centre for Leadership and Governance at UWI, Mona

way forward
  • Integration of economic and social policies,
  • Enterprise development taking into account the rural sector
  • Training and skills enhancement,
  • Expanding coverage and effectiveness of social protection systems
  • Strengthening of the institutional capacity to promote social dialogue and the regulatory framework for enforcement of core labour standards.
  • Strengthened partnerships and collaboration at the international level
way forward1
Way Forward
  • Direct and special focus on the causes of youth unemployment and best practices to eliminate this problem
  • Mainstreaming of gender, age (life cycle vulnerability) and disability in all employment policies and poverty eradication strategies
  • Geographically differentiated strategies for rural and urban areas.

Thank You