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European Integration and the EU GEOG 3762 Geography of Europe Understanding the EU Why the European Union? What is the EU today? Historic Steps Enlargement How does the EU work? What does the EU do? Why the EU? Peace Safety and Security Economic and Social Solidarity

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european integration and the eu

European Integrationand the EU

GEOG 3762

Geography of Europe

understanding the eu
Understanding the EU
  • Why the European Union?
  • What is the EU today?
  • Historic Steps
  • Enlargement
  • How does the EU work?
  • What does the EU do?
why the eu
Why the EU?
  • Peace
  • Safety and Security
  • Economic and Social Solidarity
  • Bridging the gap between “rich” and “poor
  • OR is it about something else? (see video later)
what is the eu today
What is the EU today?
  • Supranational Organization of 25 nation states
  • 450 million people
  • One of the largest global economies
  • An organization with distinct economic and social patterns
historic steps
Historic Steps
  • Treaty of Paris (1951) = ECSC
  • Treaty of Rome (1957) = EEC+Euratom
  • Single European Act (1986)
  • Treaty on the European Union (1992)
  • Treaty of Amsterdam (1997)
  • Treaty of Nice (2001)

= Growth from 6 to 15 countries

enlargement
Enlargement
  • Copenhagen Summit 2002
  • Expansion to 25 countries by May 2004
  • Historical origin: 1989
  • Criteria for membership:
    • Political
    • Economic
    • Acquis communautaire
enlargement18
Enlargement
  • Economic issues
    • 10 new members are at 40% of average EU GDP
  • How large can the EU become?
    • 25 countries
    • 454 Million people
    • Expansion to 27 in 2007
    • Bulgaria and Romania
  • Turkey, anyone?
how does the eu work
How does the EU work?
  • Confederation of Countries
  • NOT a federal state
  • Something NEW!!
  • Delegation of SOME (?) national sovereignty to EU organizations
  • National interests
  • Collective interests
how does the eu work21
How does the EU work?
  • Political Structure
    • Council of European Union
    • European Commission
    • European Parliament
    • European Court of Justice
    • European Court of Auditors
    • European Ombudsman
how does the eu work22
How does the EU work?
  • Political Structure
    • Council of European Union
    • Not European Council or Council of Europe
    • Main decision making body
      • Rotating presidency (6 months)
      • Economic cooperation
      • Budgetary control
      • Member state are represented proportionally according to population they represent
      • Acts on proposals from the Commission, in consultation with the parliament
      • Majority Vote
how does the eu work23
How does the EU work?
  • Political Structure
    • European Parliament
      • 626 members
      • Elected for 5 years
      • Largest groups
        • EPP - European People’s Party
        • PES - Party of European Socialists
      • Strasbourg and Brussels
      • Democratic control over community institutions
      • Shares legislative power with council
        • Cooperation
        • Assent
        • Codecision
how does the eu work24
How does the EU work?
  • Political Structure
    • European Commission
      • Executive arm of EU
      • 25 members
      • Driving force in the integration process
      • Proposes directions to take
      • Implements the measures decided on by the Council and Parliament
      • Answerable to the European Parliament
      • Since1967, a single Commission has served all three European Communities (ECSC, Euratom and EC).
how does the eu work25
How does the EU work?
  • Political Structure
    • European Court of Justice
      • 25 judges
      • Ensure the equal application of community law
      • Issues proceedings
        • Failure to fulfill obligation
        • Annulment
        • Failure to Act
how does the eu work26
How does the EU work?
  • Political Structure
    • European Court of Auditors
      • Fiscal watchdogs
      • Monitors the income and spending of the EU
      • Ensures correct contributions and redistribution of resources
      • Monitors the spending habits of member states and individual EU projects and funding sources
      • Central concern: fraud protection
how does the eu work27
How does the EU work?
  • Political Structure
    • European Ombudsman
      • Liaison between EU citizens and the organization
      • Helps individuals in their legal battle against maladministration in the EU
      • Makes recommendations to Commission to counteract maladmistration
how does the eu work30
How does the EU work?
  • Economic Structure
    • European Central Bank
    • European Investment Bank
how does the eu work31
How does the EU work?
  • Economic Structure
    • European Central Bank
      • Define and implement the monetary policy of the euro zone
      • Conduct foreign exchange operations
      • Hold and manage the official exchange reserves of the countries of the euro zone;
      • Issue notes in the zone euro;
      • Promote the smooth operation of payment systems.
      • Collects statistical information from national authorities