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Molarity. Concentration Based on Mass. Concentration - amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution Concentration of a solution has an effect on Physical properties Melting and boiling points Chemical properties Solution reactivity. Moles and Equivalents.

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## Molarity

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**Concentration Based on Mass**• Concentration - amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution • Concentration of a solution has an effect on • Physical properties • Melting and boiling points • Chemical properties • Solution reactivity**Moles and Equivalents**• Chemical equations represent the relative number of moles of reactants producing products • Many chemical reactions occur in solution where it is most useful to represent concentrations on a molar basis**Molarity**• The most common mole-based concentration unit is molarity • Molarity • Symbolized M • Defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution**Molarity**2M HCl What does this mean?**Molarity Calculations**MASS IN GRAMS MOLES NUMBER OF PARTICLES LITERS OF SOLUTION 6.02 1023 (particles/mol) molar mass (g/mol) Molarity (mol/L)**Calculating Molarity from Moles**• Calculate the molarity of 2.0 L of solution containing 5.0 mol NaOH • Use the equation • Substitute into the equation: MNaOH = 5.0 mol solute 2.0 L solution = 2.5 M**Molarity Calculations**How many grams of NaCl are required to make 0.500L of 0.25M NaCl? 0.500 L 0.25 mol 1 L 58.44 g 1 mol = 7.3 g NaCl**Molarity Calculations**Find the molarity of a 250 mL solution containing 10.0 g of NaF. M = 10.0 g 1 mol 41.99 g = 0.238 mol NaF 0.238 mol 0.25 L = 0.95M NaF**Molar Volume of a Gas**• Molar volume- the volume occupied by 1 mol of any gas • STP – Standard Temperature and Pressure • T = 273 K (or 0oC) • P = 1 atm • At STP the molar volume of any gas is 22.4 L • Vgas = molesgas x (22.4L/1 mol)**Molar Mass and Density**• A gas’s density will determine if it will sink or float in the air • Molar mass = density x molar volume • At STP

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