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COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Mr. Ante BARIC, Ph.D., Consultant to the UNEP/MAP Regional Consultation Meeting “Climatic Change Impact in the Arab Region: Sea Level Rise, Coastal Erosion and Human Development” Cairo, 20 – 21 September 2010
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Introductory comments The tasks, given in the instruction for preparing the presentation, are very broad and rather complex. For their detailed elaboration it would be needed much more time than proposed 12 minutes. Therefore, I decided to focus my presentation on the regional approach to the Integrated Coastal Zone Management and the Climate Change issues.
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Structure • Coastal zones, particularly in the Mediterranean • ICZM • ICZM Protocol in the Mediterranean • Impacts of the Climate change on costal zone • ICZM and climatic change in the Mediterranean?? • Regional UNEP/MAP Projects
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Coastal zone, particularly in the Mediterranean, under heavy pressures by: • Urbanization • Industrialization • Tourism • Fisheries • Mariculture • Maritime transport • Sand exploitation • Land based pollution
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Impacts on the Coastal zone • Destruction of habitats and reduction in biodiversity • Loss of wetlands • Coastal erosion • Reduced quality of seawater • Decline in fisheries
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Critical issues in the CZ Management • Desire to get as close to the coastline as possible • Incompatibility of various land uses which cannot exist in • juxtaposition. • Private ownership of coastal land which prevents public • from the free access to the coastline. • The long-term goals for conservation of coastal • resources is often incompatible with the desire for a • short-term economic profit interests. • The provision of “environmental” services is often not in • accordance with the rate of economic development.
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)?? Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) means a dynamic process for the sustainable management and use of coastal zones, taking into account at the same time the fragility of coastal ecosystems and landscapes, the diversity of activities and uses, their interactions, the maritime orientation of certain activities and uses and their impact on both the marine and land parts.
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Objectives of ICZM are to: • Facilitate the sustainable development of CZ by ensuring that the environment and landscapes are taken into account in harmony with economic, social and cultural development; • Preserve of coastal zones for benefits of current and future generation; • Ensure sustainable use of natural resources; • Ensure preservation of the integrity of coastal ecosystems, landscapes and geomorphology; • Prevent and/or reduce the effects of natural hazards and in particular of climate change, which can be induced by natural or human activities; • Achieve coherence between public and private initiative and between all decisions by the public authorities, at the national, regional and local levels, which effect the use of coastal zone.
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol in the Mediterranean • Signed in Madrid, on 21 January 2008 • Ratified by 5CPs, so far; (2 more ratifications need for entry into force) • Bold: the first international legal instrument thatprovides a clear definition of the coastal zone and requires the definition of the coastal setback. • Innovative: tackles a number of issues for the first time ever in the field of ICZM legislation such as: islands; cultural heritage; land policy; economic, financial and fiscal instruments; natural hazards; and coastal erosion. Not only does the Protocol mention these issues, but it also puts forward the specific requirements that the Contracting Parties will have to fulfill. • Forward-looking and proactive: It aims at preventing and not only reacting to coastal problems.
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Protocol is precise in: • defining the coastal zone • defining the Integrated Coastal Zone Management • defining the coastal setback • formulation and development of coastal strategies • formulation of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment • developing policies for preventing natural hazards, particularly those resulting from the climate change • applying the ecosystems approach to coastal planning and management • reporting on the implementation of the Protocol
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Impacts of the Climate change on coastal zone • Increased coastal erosion; • Loss of land; • Worsenining flooding in delta areas, lagoon coasts; • Increased salinization in estuaries; • Shrinkage of fresh water-tables, intrusion of saltwater into aquifers; • Changes in marine ecosystems and biodiversity.
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Impacts of the Climate change on costal erosion in the region - in principle are due to: • sea level rise • increase number of extreme events (storms, strong winds, floods, heavy rains, etc.)
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Coastal erosion – complex issue Natural causes: • Sea level rise – Climatic changes • Coastal subsidence due to tectonic events • Changing of the storm intensities, shift of the dominant storm directions affecting the approach angle of waves - Climatic changes; • Variation of precipitation and the river regimes and discharges - Climatic changes; • Increased vegetation cover over the river watersheds due to climaticchanges (causing decreased soil erosion and sediment supplied to the coast); • Sediment sinks (presence of offshore canyons, movement to great depths at steep slopes, wind transport of sand to inland areas); • Changing of river courses and mouths in deltas.
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Anthropogenic causes: • Decreasing sediment supply by rivers to the coastal zone (cutting of the sediment transport by damming the rivers, sand and gravel mining along the river beds, decreasing the sediment transport efficiency by lowering water discharges due to increased fresh water use or due to river works such as bank and bed erosion control); • Erosion control works and afforestation in coastal and riverine watersheds; • Decreasing the volume of sand in the physiographic unit (sand mining from the beach and dunes, offshore sand mining); • Alteration of the usual pattern of coastal currents and the associated sediment transport along and across the shoreline, due to man-made coastal structures and urban development too close to the shoreline; • Anthropogenic changes made to river courses and mouths in deltas; • Maintenance dredging of approach channels and estuarine inlets;
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach ICZM and Climatic Change in the Mediterranean?? Article 22 of the ICZM Protocol “Within the framework of national strategies for ICZM, the Parties shall develop polices for the prevention of natural standards. To this end, they shall undertake vulnerability and hazard assessment of coastal zones and take prevention, mitigation and adaptation measures to address the effects of natural disasters, in particular of climaticchange.” • ICZM should seek to integrate all key issues of critical importance to the management of coastal resources and resource use – including climate change adaptation; • Climatic change should not be an issue outside of an ICZM framework.
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach MCSD at the 13 meeting in Sept. 2009: • called the CPs toimplement adaptation measures on an urgent basis with a view to strengthening the resilience of the Mediterranean region in the face climate change and adaptation; • Compiled of a matrix of key adaptation to climate change actions to be taken at different levels of intervention (regional, national, local); 16th CPs meeting emphasised the need for: • the Med. Region to collectively build a strong coalition and partnership for action on adaptation to climate change; • regional coordination for adaptation to climate change; • sharing of domestic adaptation related experience and tools including the needs for capacity building; • enhanced knowledge and scientific assessment as tools for policy makers to incorporate measures into adaptation plans.
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Marrakesh Declaration – adopted on 4 Nov. 2009 by the Ministers of the Environment and Heads of Delegations of the CPs: • Concluded that adaptation to climate change in the marine coastal zone is a major priority for the Mediterranean region, which requires regional guidance and coordination; • Mandated the MAP to explore the possibility of enriching the MCSD with regional action plans including one on adaptation to climate change, and to integrate adaptation into development policies at the national level; • Called for strengthening the Mediterranean cooperation, enhancing the institutional mechanism, particularly to provide a mechanism for exchanges and the sharing of experience and knowledge with other regions of the world;
A. BARIC - COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT – A Regional approach Regional UNEP/MAP projects • Strategic Partnership for the Mediterranean Sea LME - supported by GEF, under implementation Objectives: • To support the Med. countries to implement the SAPMED and SAPBIO; • To support the Med. countries to implement the ICZM Protocol 2. Integration of Climatic variability and change into national strategies to implement the ICZM Protocol in the Mediterranean – under preparation within the framework of UNEP GEF PPG Objective: To support the Med. countries to address the issue of climate change in the coastal zone of the Mediterranean 3. Regional Adaptation Framework for Climate Change – under preparation Objective: To support the Med. Countries in building a strong coalition and partnership for action on adaptation to climate change