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Body Systems. Levels of Organization. ATOMS (basic building block of matter) CELLS (building blocks of life) TISSUES (a group of similar cells that work together to perform a common function). Levels of Organization.

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levels of organization
Levels of Organization
  • ATOMS(basic building block of matter)
  • CELLS (building blocks of life)
  • TISSUES (a group of

similar cells that work

together to perform a

common function)

levels of organization1
Levels of Organization
  • ORGANS (a group of two or more types of tissues working together to perform a specific function)
  • ORGAN SYSTEMS (a group of organs that work together to carry out major activities or processes)
level of organization
Level of Organization
  • ORGANISMS (a complete being)
body systems1
Body Systems

Circulatory System

Nervous System

Respiratory System

Digestive System

Endocrine System

Skeletal system

Excretory System

Muscular System Immune System

Reproductive System Integumentary

  • What is homeostasis?
    • A state of biological balance in an organism.
  • What are some examples of how human body systems work together to maintain homeostasis?
feedback loop
Feedback Loop

Information sent to…


Control center determines and sends output to…

EFFECTOR-delivers response from control center

RECEPTOR—senses the change (sensor)

Stimulus produces a change

Response goes back to influence stimulus amount and return to homeostasis


Homeostasis Variable

negative vs positive feedback mechanisms
Negative vs. Positive Feedback Mechanisms
  • What do you think is the difference between a negative feedback mechanism and a positive feedback mechanism?
    • Negative: Goal is to return to “normal” by shutting off or reducing the original stimulus
      • Examples: body temperature regulation, breathing rate and blood pressure
    • Positive: Goal is to stray farther from “normal” by increasing the original stimulus
      • Examples: childbirth and blood clotting
circulatory system1
Circulatory System
  • The main parts of the Circulatory system are the;
    • veins
    • capillaries
    • arteries
    • heart

Arteries – carry (oxygenated) blood away from the heart

Veins – carry (deoxygenated) blood back to the heart from parts of the body

This process is called circulation.

nervous system
Nervous System
  • The nervous system is the control center of the human body.
  • It is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
  • It receives and interprets stimuli and transmits impulses to organs.
  • Your brain uses the information it receives to coordinate all of your actions and reactions.
structure of a vertebrate neuron
Structure of a vertebrate neuron

What are the functions of: dendrites, axons, myelin sheath, synapses?

respiratory system1
Respiratory System

The respiratory system's

function is to allow oxygen

exchange through all parts

of the body

  • When we inhale, the body takes in the oxygen that it needs .
  • Exhaling removes the carbon dioxide that it doesn't need.
  • Includes: mouth, nose, lungs and diaphargm.
digestive system
Digestive System
  • Digestionis the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller components that are more easily absorbed into a blood stream, for instance.
  • The hydrochloric acid in the stomach has a low pH, which allows enzymes to work more efficiently. After some time, the resulting thick liquid is called chyme.
  • Chyme will go through the small intestine, where 95% of absorption of nutrients occurs, through the large intestine, and are eliminated during defecation.
endocrine system
Endocrine System
  • This system regulates, coordinates, and controls hormones, body functions, and secretions in the blood.
  • Secretions help control moods, growth, development, and metabolism.
  • made up of :
    • Hypothalamus
    • Pituitary gland
    • thyroid gland
    • Thymus
    • Ovaries
    • Testis
    • adrenal glands
types of hormones
Types of Hormones
  • Protein hormones
    • Polar
    • Can they go through the cell membrane?
  • Steroid hormones
    • Made from cholesterol
    • Can they go through the cell membrane?
types of skeletal systems
Types of Skeletal Systems
  • Exoskeleton – hard, waxy coverings on outside of some invertebrates’ bodies.
  • Endoskeleton
  • 1. Supports the body
  • 2. Protects internal organs
  • 3. Provides for movement
  • 4. Stores minerals
  • 5. Where blood is made

How Many Bones?

Total = 206 bones

excretory system urinary
Excretory System (Urinary)
  • the removal of waste substances from the body


Sweat glands

Blood passes through the kidneys 300 times a day


Rectum (digestive)

  • Primary organ for the excretory system are the Kidneys

The kidneys balance the volume of fluids and minerals in the body. This balance in the body is called homeostasis

Blood passes through the kidneys 300 times a day

muscular system1
Muscular System
  • composed of skeletal smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue

Muscular Movement:

Voluntary movement is moving by choice: running, dancing , typing

2. Involuntary movement is moving

without thinking: heart beating,

breathing, reflex

reproductive system
Reproductive System
  • This system ensures that humans are able to reproduce and survive as a species. It is made up of organs such as the uterus, penis, ovaries, and testes.
second line of defense
Second Line of Defense
  • Attacks invaders when they get in
  • Not specific – kills all cells that aren’t supposed to be there

Phagocytotic WBC



third line of defense
Third Line of Defense
  • Specific – attacks a specific invader (antigen)
    • Examples – cold, flu, measels
  • Antigens – cause a specific immune response
  • Made up of white blood cells (lymphocytes)
    • B cells – Humoral Response
    • T cells – Cell-Mediated Response
helper t cells
Helper T-Cells
  • A macrophage (phagocytotic WBC) eats an invader
  • It wears surface proteins of the bacteria
  • The Helper T-Cell that can fight this infection recognizes the surface protein
  • The Helper T-Cell organizes B Cells and Cytotoxic T-Cells
  • ** Helper T-Cells are Coordinators **
b cells
B Cells

Make antibodies;

Antibodies prevent invader from infecting new cells

Lock and key fit


hiv attacks helper t cells
HIV attacks Helper T-Cells

Very low Helper T Cell

Can’t fight infections

integumentary system
Integumentary System

A system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands that protects the body and controls body temperature.

systems working together
Systems working together
  • Regulation (Homeostasis)
    • Nervous, Endocrine and Respiratory

Nutrient Absorption

Digestive, Circulatory and Excretory


Reproductive and Hormone


Skeletomuscular, Integumentary and Immune