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  1. ADAPTING A RESOURCE Rose Desmond and Dorothy Thwaite

  2. Principles • Start where the learner is at (or just a little beyond) • Decide on the focus – fluency (meaning) or accuracy (language) • Consider grading (adapting) the task • Encourage the learner’s participation (too easy/just right/too hard)

  3. Adapt the layout • Change the font size (larger = easier to read, more white space. Smaller = more dense, more authentic) • Change the font (Arial = clear, easy to read. Times New Roman =more like authentic newspaper print) • Change the margins, line spacing (amount of white space, length of a single line of text)

  4. TEENAGER DIES AFTER SHARK ATTACK 16-year-old Peter Edmonds died yesterday after a shark bit him on the leg while he was surfing at a beach in New South Wales, Australia. His friend rushed into the water to try to save him. Lifesavers who were on duty nearby also raced to help, but when they pulled the boy from the water they could not revive him. Peter died from loss of blood. His friend, who needed treatment for shock, will probably receive a medal for bravery. Shark sightings are common in the area, but no attacks had been reported for years. The last time a person was killed by a shark in NSW was in 1993.

  5. Grading “up” Give a challenging task: • Take notes • Summarise • Give an opinion • Make deductions (Why did the friend need treatment for shock?) • Extrapolate to personal experience/views (Would you go swimming at a NSW beach? Why?)

  6. Make the text more challenging: • Read/play a spoken text once or twice only • Join some of the sentences to make compound or complex sentences Although his friend rushed into the water to try to save him and lifesavers on duty also raced to help, it was impossible to revive the boy, who died from loss of blood.

  7. 3. Add a greater range of vocabulary e.g. synonyms for key words 16-year-old Peter Edmonds suffered a fatal shark attack at a beach in New South Wales, Australia.

  8. Make the text longer – add some of your own (check the facts first!) The shark was probably a Great White, a frequenter of the warm waters around X Harbour, and may have measured up to 2.5m. Experts say that that unprovoked attacks on humans are comparatively rare.

  9. 5. Use the original or tweaked text for language study: (invite the learner to provide the explanations) 16-year-old Peter Edmonds died yesterday after he was bitten by a shark while surfing at a beach in New South Wales, Australia….. Shark sightings are common in the area, but no attacks had been reported for years…

  10. Grading “down” • Make the text shorter 16-year-old Peter Edmonds died yesterday after he was bitten by a shark while surfing at a beach in New South Wales, Australia. His friend, who needed treatment for shock, will probably receive a medal for bravery.

  11. 2. Make the font size larger (slow down a spoken text) 16-year-old Peter Edmonds died yesterday after he was bitten by a shark while surfing at a beach in New South Wales, Australia.

  12. 3. Increase the amount of white space/silence 16-year-old Peter Edmonds died yesterday after a shark bit him on the leg while he was surfing at a beach in New South Wales, Australia.

  13. 4. Add a picture (a photo is best) TEENAGER DIES AFTER SHARK ATTACK

  14. 5. Make the sentences shorter 16-year-old Peter Edmonds died yesterday after a shark bit him on the leg. Peter was surfing at a beach in New South Wales, Australia. 6. Make the sentences simpler Yesterday a shark bit a boy at a beach in Australia.

  15. Grade the task: • Listen/look and identify more of the same Show me the number of times you hear/see the word “shark” • Match (words, sounds, numbers, like with like) Which word means the same as…?

  16. Grade the Task (continued) • Locate the answer in the text What was the name of the boy in the article? • Link with known information A shark is a type of ________

  17. Grade the Task (continued) • Draw a conclusion Why did Peter’s friend need treatment for shock? • Give an opinion (link with student’s experience) Would you allow your family to go swimming in Australia?