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Tuning a Very Large Data Warehouse . Pichai Bala. About Me. Working in the IT industry for the past 17 years Working in Oracle since 1993. Working in Data Warehouse and BI since 2003. Disclaimer. The views expressed in this presentation are

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about me
About Me
  • Working in the IT industry for the past 17 years
  • Working in Oracle since 1993.
  • Working in Data Warehouse and BI since 2003
disclaimer
Disclaimer

The views expressed in this presentation are

mine and does not represent the organization I work for

or the organizations I had worked for in the past.

Please always test and validate the ideas presented here

in a test environment first.

what the chaos mean for the dba
What the chaos mean for the DBA?
  • Free buffer waits
  • enq: KO - fast object checkpoint
  • enq: TM - contention
  • db sequential read
  • CPU time
  • Logical I/O
  • Physical I/O
what it means to the end users
What it means to the End Users?
  • ETL Load/Batch Job Delays
  • Reporting Delays
  • Decision Making Delays
  • Business Analytics Delays
  • Customer Intelligence Delays
  • Planning and Forecasting Delays
  • Key Performance Metrics Delays
data warehouse vicious cycle
Data Warehouse Vicious Cycle
  • Data gets deployed
  • Gains User Acceptance
  • More Users and More Demands and Needs
  • Existing Data Grows and New Data gets Deployed

…and gets into the Death Spiral

possible causes
Possible Causes….
  • Lack of proper and meaningful maintenance
  • Human errors
  • Poor Design
  • Bad SQLs by developers, users
  • Poor monitoring and scheduling etc..
tuning strategy
Tuning Strategy
  • Keep it Simple
  • Low Intensity Changes with low impact but with high performance benefits
  • Localized changes
  • No change in logic
  • Easy to understand, test and deploy
reduce wastage
Reduce Wastage
  • Reduce CPU
  • Reduce Logical IO
  • Reduce Physical IO
  • Reduce UNDO
  • Reduce Direct Path Reads
how it can be done
How it can be done?
  • Server Tuning
  • Instance Tuning and Maintenance
  • Database Tuning and Maintenance
  • Table Reorganizations/Redefinitions
  • New Indexes
  • Regular Statistics Collection
  • Views
  • SQL/PLSQL Code Changes
  • Working with other teams
  • Educating/Training the users
instance database tuning
Instance/Database Tuning
  • SGA Max Size
  • DB Cache Size
  • Shared Pool
  • Large Pool
  • No. of DB Writers
  • Redo Log File Size
  • Typical Init.ORA parameters like QUERY_REWRITE, BITMAP_MERGE_JOIN
sql plsql tuning
SQL/PLSQL Tuning
  • Avoid Clutter
  • Use Indexes when appropriate
  • Full Table Scan is not bad
  • Revisit the code
  • Cunning code is not always necessary
  • Work with other teams and business to reduce complexity in code
  • Avoid Hints
query results can be wrong
Query Results can be wrong
  • In 10G use ORDER BY whenever GROUP BY is used
  • Hidden parameter can be enabled with the help of Oracle Support
pillars of the data warehouse
Pillars of the Data Warehouse
  • Partitioning
  • Parallelism
  • Aggregations
  • Compression
  • Materialized Views
  • Read Only Tablespaces
  • Data Archival
partitioning
Partitioning
  • Range Partitioning
  • List Partitioning
  • Range List Partitioning
  • Range Hash Partitioning
  • Hash Partitioning

Caveat: Joins beware.

parallelism
Parallelism
  • Tables can be built parallel
  • Parallel Indexes
  • Parallel Hints while loading or querying.
  • Alter table <xxx> move … parallel (degree 8) …;
  • Alter table <xxx> split … parallel( degree 4) …;
  • Create table <xxx> parallel(degree 4)…
  • Sufficient LARGE_POOL helps greatly
aggregations
Aggregations
  • Aggregations and MVs are the soul of any DSS
  • Most BI tools supports Aggregation Awareness
  • Have multiple aggregations
  • Aggregations help users with adhoc queries
  • Daily, Monthly and Yearly Aggregations are very common in most DSS
compression
Compression
  • Saves Disk Space by 40 to 50%
  • Reduces Logical IO
  • Reduces Physical IO
  • Reads will be fast
  • DMLs will be slow
  • Compress Table as well as Index
  • Caveat : You can’t uncompress after the table is compressed

ORA-01735: invalid ALTER TABLE option

materialized view
Materialized View
  • Fast Refresh may be very slow
  • From 10G MV can be parallel
  • MVs can be partitioned
  • MV_CAPABILITY results can be misleading.
  • ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW <mv_name> parallel (degree 4 );

For MV Fast Refresh to be successful a Complete Refresh should happen before

exchange partitions
Exchange Partitions
  • Very Useful
  • Dictionary update only
  • Can’t Exchange a table with bitmap indexes with a partition

Partition exchange has issue with BITMAP indexes with the ora error for mismatch indexes 0RA-14098

readonly tablespaces
READONLY Tablespaces
  • Data Warehouse has time variant non-volatile data
  • Say Range Partition on TIME, and making historic tablespaces READONLY helps Database Checkpoint process
data archival
Data Archival
  • With various regulatory and internal requirements data needs to be retained for 2 to 30 years.
  • Data growth is exponential
  • Archival is needed to start it small and keep it small
  • Saves $$$ in Database licenses and maintenance.
  • Helps the optimizer to get results faster from a smaller set
rolling partitions
Rolling Partitions
  • If design permits instead of creating new partitions every time the same partition can be reused again and again.
  • Like SUNDAY can be reloaded again on the same partition next Sunday.
  • Rolling Partitions by HOUR or by DAY of the WEEK can be considered
  • Helps Data Retention Strategies too.
case of huge undo
Case of HUGE UNDO
  • More than 30G of UNDO was getting generated for a 1.5G table

Fix the code and fix the problem.

misleading v lock
Misleading V$lock
  • Blocking locks won’t show in v$lock but locks would exist
  • Use x$kgllk or x$kglpn to identify and kill the blocking sessions.
package invalidations
Package Invalidations
  • Package gets invalidated but can’t recompile itself because of sessions holding them invisibly
  • Coding and deployment standards can help
ora 02049 timeout distributed transaction waiting for lock
ORA-02049: timeout: distributed transaction waiting for lock
  • Flush the Shared Pool, the failures go away
  • From 10G you can avoid bounces by flushing buffer_cache and shared_pool
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