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Vaccinations in Adults and the Elderly. Virginia Geriatric Education Center. Outline. Immunosenescence Cost/benefit of vaccination Adult vaccine recommendations Travel vaccine recommendations covered elsewhere Institutional policies. Immunosenescence.

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vaccinations in adults and the elderly

Vaccinations in Adults and the Elderly

Virginia Geriatric Education Center

outline
Outline
  • Immunosenescence
  • Cost/benefit of vaccination
  • Adult vaccine recommendations
    • Travel vaccine recommendations covered elsewhere
  • Institutional policies
immunosenescence
Immunosenescence
  • Decline in immune response to antigenic challenges related to aging
    • Vaccines
    • Infections
  • Affects vaccine responses differently
immunosenescence clinical manifestations
Immunosenescence: Clinical Manifestations
  • Increased infectious morbidity and mortality
  • Reduced speed and magnitude of immune response to infection
  • Clinical detection of infection more difficult
  • Increased risk of all cause mortality during epidemic infections (influenza)
why vaccination
Why Vaccination?
  • Most cost effective protection
  • Primes the immune system
  • Only ‘therapy’ that is truly proactive
  • Able to prevent caregivers from becoming ‘vectors’ for transmission
  • Low incidence of adverse reactions
what would happen without vaccination
What Would Happen Without Vaccination?
  • Polio: 13k-20k/year, disfigurement, respiratory failure
  • Measles: Developing world mortality is 1/100 cases. Infection rate 90% in unvaccinated persons exposed. Estimated 2.7 million deaths without vaccination. Infection rate reduced by 99%.
  • Haemophius influenza type B: Prior to vaccination caused 600 deaths per year in U.S. Thousands of deaf, mentally retarded, or permanent seizure disorder patients. Infection rate reduced by 98%
  • Similar for: Pertussis, Rubella, Hepitits B, Diptheria, Tetanus, Mumps.

-CDC: National Immunization Program

changes in morbidity due to vaccination
Changes in Morbidity Due to Vaccination

-Adapted from Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th Edition.

some diseases for which effective vaccine unavailable
Some Diseases for Which Effective Vaccine Unavailable

1: Active prevalence estimated at ~200 million, 20 million with severe disease

2: Measles vaccines effective but heat sensitive. Tropical use difficult.

-Estimated mortality data from 1999 from World Health Report 2000, World Health Organization

can we stop vaccinating for common diseases
Can We Stop Vaccinating for Common Diseases?
  • 1974: Japan had 80% of children vaccinated for pertussis (whooping cough)
    • 393 cases and no deaths reported
  • Pertussis vaccination perceived as unneeded / unsafe
  • 1976: only 10% of infants vaccinated
  • 1979: Japan suffered a major pertussis epidemic
    • 13K cases and 41 deaths
  • Cases dropped again when pertussis vaccination restarted
  • Similar experiences in Germany and Sweden

-CDC: National Immunization Program

vaccine related complications
Vaccine Related Complications?
  • Commercially available vaccines are safe
  • Most vaccine adverse events are minor
    • sore arm or mild fever
  • Serious adverse events rare
    • 1/1000 to 1/1,000,000 of doses
    • some so rare that risk cannot be accurately assessed
  • Statistical risk of death attributed to vaccines so rare it is hard to assess
  • Of deaths reported to VAERS (Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System) 1990-92, only one believed vaccine related
  • The Institute of Medicine in 1994 stated risk of death from vaccines is "extraordinarily low."

-CDC: National Immunization Program

vaccine concerns
Vaccine Concerns
  • Some question safety and efficacy
    • Mercury
    • Thimerisol
  • Scientific evidence has proven vaccines:
    • Extraordinarily safe
    • Very effective
common claims of anti immunization web sites
Common Claims of Anti-immunization Web Sites

-Adapted from: http://www.immunizationinfo.org/immunization_issues_detail.cfv?id=52

common claims of anti immunization web sites1
Common Claims of Anti-immunization Web Sites

-Adapted from: http://www.immunizationinfo.org/immunization_issues_detail.cfv?id=52

can a vaccine cause the illness
Can a vaccine cause the illness?
  • Some have concern of catching the disease the vaccine is designed to prevent
  • Vaccines on ACIP schedule:
    • Contain no organism
    • Only antigens from the pathogenic organisms
  • Mild symptoms from vaccination is a cytokine immune response
cost effectiveness
Cost Effectiveness
  • Per dollar spent on vaccination saves:
    • Pertussis DTP: $29
    • Measles/mumps/rubella: $21
    • Oral polio $6
    • Varicella (Chicken pox) $5
    • Haemophilus influenza type b: $2
    • Influenza: $31

-Immunization Principles and Vaccine Use. G Keusch, K Bart.

-Annals of Internal Medicine, 2002;137(4):225-231).

-The efficacy,effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of inactivated influenza virus vaccines. Nichol, KL. Vaccine, 2003;21(16):1769-75)

Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th Edition.

primary prevention vaccination
Primary Prevention: Vaccination
  • Cost-effective
    • Vaccination of nursing home residents, and older adults

Patriarca, P. A., Arden, N. H., Koplan, J. P., & Goodman, R. A. (1987). Prevention and control of type A influenza infections in nursing homes. Benefits and costs of four approaches using vaccination and amantadine. Ann Intern Med, 107(5), 732-740.

Nichol, K. L., Margolis, K. L., Wuorenma, J., & Von Sternberg, T. (1994). N Engl J Med, 331(12), 778-784.

    • Vaccination of nursing home residents and staff

Boersma, B., Rhames, T., & Keegan, J. M. (1999). Am J Infect Control, 27(2), 177-178.

  • Vaccine is also effective when the vaccine match to circulating strain is poor
vaccination vs immunization
Vaccination vs. Immunization
  • Vaccination: vaccine or toxoid
  • Immunization: induction or providing of immunity, active or passive
    • Active immunization: induction of immune defenses by administration of an antigen
    • Passive immunization: temporary protection by exogenously produced immune substances
typical antibody response
Typical Antibody Response

Primary Response Antigen 1

Secondary Response

Antigen 1

Antigen 1

Lag Phase

Lag Phase

Antigen 2

Lag Phase

Primary

Response to

Antigen 1

Primary

Response to

Antigen 2

Antigen 1

Antigen 1 + Antigen 2

immunization
Immunization

Antigen presenting cell

IL-1

Macrophage

Memory T cell

Helper T cell

IL-2

IFN

Cytotoxic T cell

Natural Killer Cell

Y

Il-2

IL-4

IL-6

B cell

Y Y

Y

Antibody

active immunization
Active Immunization
  • Two approaches:
    • Live, attenuated whole organism vaccine
    • Inactivated or constituent vaccine
  • Multiple strategies
passive immunization
Passive Immunization
  • Used for temporary immunity after exposure to an infectious agent when active immunization is unavailable or has not been implemented prior to exposure.
  • Examples: Diphtheria, Rabies, certain spider or snake bites
types of antigens
Types of Antigens
  • Vaccine: Attenuated live or killed microorganisms or antigenic pieces of these agents to induce immunity and prevent disease
  • Toxoid: Modified bacterial toxin made nontoxic but retaining capacity to stimulate formation of antitoxin
  • Immune globulin: Antibody containing solution used to maintain immunity in immunodeficient persons exposed to a pathogen or pathogenic toxin
  • Antitoxin: Antibody to specific pathogens or toxins used to provide passive immunity
route of administration
Route of Administration
  • Orally, Topically, or by Injection
    • Intranasal
    • Intradermal, subcutaneously, intramuscular
  • Non-mucosal (injection) administration may not induce mucosal IgA antibody protection and mucosal administration may not induce good systemic responses
intramuscular injections disadvantages
Intramuscular Injections: Disadvantages
  • Needle injection unpopular with public
  • Requires nurse or other professional to administer
  • Expensive
  • Does not usually stimulate IgA
  • Disposal and hazardous waste issues increases cost and infection risk
the immune response why vaccines work
The Immune Response: Why Vaccines Work
  • Primary response
    • Immune system stimulated by vaccine
    • Several days (7-10 days for antibodies)
  • Secondary Response
    • Heightened humoral and cellular immune responses bring faster reaction to infection (4-5 days)
  • Protection after vaccination usually within 2-3 weeks
measurement of immunity
Measurement of Immunity
  • Vaccine response measured by concentration of specific antibody (immunoglobulin)
    • Usually done by titer not absolute amount
  • Immunization considered successful with four-fold titer rise
  • Antibody response correlates with activation of immune system as a whole
herd immunity
Herd Immunity
  • Immunizing a significant portion of the population decreases infection rate in non-immunized individuals
  • Part of rationale of immunizing healthcare workers
  • Immunization policies in LTC, health care facilities, schools, etc. important
target populations
Target Populations
  • Childhood vaccines for adults if have never received them
  • Elderly (i.e. immunocompromised)
  • Patients with chronic disease
    • Asthma/COPD, ESRD, CHF, CA, DM, SSD
  • Persons who are likely to serve as vectors for infection to the above populations (caregivers and health care providers)
slide36
Clinical Influenza Attack Rates (Kansas City, 1957) and Annual Mortality Rate Pneumonia and Influenza (US, 1957) by Age

60

50

40

300

200

100

0

Clinical Influenza Attack Rate per 100

Attack Rate

30

Mortality Rate per 100,000

20

10

Mortality Rate

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Age (Years)

Serfling RE, Sherman IL, Housworth WJ. Am J Epidemiol. 1967;86:433–441.

Chin TDY, Foley JF, Doto IL, Gravelle CR, Weston J. Public Health Rep. 1960;75:149–58.

slide37

Specific Vaccinations approved by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), and accepted by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)

adult immunization schedule
Adult Immunization Schedule

1: for those individuals at risk; mainly health care workers.

slide40

Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule, United States, 2003-2004by Age Group

For all persons

in this group

Catch-up on

childhood vaccinations

For persons with medical / exposure indications

Age Group

50-64 Years

19-49 Years

65 Years and Older

Vaccine

Tetanus,Diphtheria (Td)*

1 dose booster every 10 years 1

1 dose annually 2

1 dose annually 2

Influenza

Pneumococcal (polysaccharide)

1 dose 3,4

1 dose 3,4

3 doses (0, 1-2, 4-6 months) 5

Hepatitis B*

2 doses (0, 6-12 months) 6

Hepatitis A

1 dose if vaccination history unknown

2 doses for persons with occupational indications 7

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR)*

2 doses (0, 4-8 weeks) for persons who are susceptible 8

Varicella*

Meningococcal

(polysaccharide)

1 dose 9

-American Academy of Family Practice. http://www.aafp.org/x14956.xml

slide41
Footnotes forRecommended Adult Immunization Schedule by Age Group and Medical Conditions, United States, 2003-2004

1. Tetanus and diphtheria (Td)—Adults including pregnant women with uncertain histories of a complete primary vaccination series should receive a primary series of Td. A primary series for adults is 3 doses: the first 2 doses given at least 4 weeks apart and the 3rd dose, 6-12 months after the second. Administer 1 dose if the person had received the primary series and the last vaccination was 10 years ago or longer. Consult MMWR 1991; 40 (RR-10): 1-21 for administering Td as prophylaxis in wound management. The ACP Task Force on Adult Immunization supports a second option for Td use in adults: a single Td booster at age 50 years for persons who have completed the full pediatric series, including the teenage/young adult booster. Guide for Adult Immunization. 3rd ed. ACP 1994: 20.

2. Influenza vaccination—Medical indications: chronic disorders of the cardiovascular or pulmonary systems including asthma; chronic metabolic diseases including diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction, hemoglobinopathies, or immunosuppression (including immunosuppression caused by medications or by human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]), requiring regular medical follow-up or hospitalization during the preceding year; women who will be in the second or third trimester of pregnancy during the influenza season. Occupational indications: health-care workers. Other indications: residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities; persons likely to transmit influenza to persons at high-risk (in-home care givers to persons with medical indications, household contacts and out-of-home caregivers of children birth to 23 months of age, or children with asthma or other indicator conditions for influenza vaccination, household members and care givers of elderly and adults with high-risk conditions); and anyone who wishes to be vaccinated. For healthy persons aged 5-49 years without high risk conditions, either the inactivated vaccine or the intranasally administered influenza vaccine (Flumist) may be given. MMWR 2003; 52 (RR-8): 1-36; MMWR 2003;53 (RR-13): 1-8.

3. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination—Medical indications: chronic disorders of the pulmonary system (excluding asthma), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver diseases including liver disease as a result of alcohol abuse (e.g., cirrhosis), chronic renal failure or nephrotic syndrome, functional or anatomic asplenia (e.g., sickle cell disease or splenectomy), immunosuppressive conditions (e.g., congenital immunodeficiency, HIV infection, leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, Hodgkins disease, generalized malignancy, organ or bone marrow transplantation), chemotherapy with alkylating agents, anti-metabolites, or long-term systemic corticosteroids. Geographic/other indications: Alaskan Natives and certain American Indian populations. Other indications: residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities. MMWR 1997; 46 (RR-8): 1-24.

slide42
Footnotes forRecommended Adult Immunization Schedule by Age Group and Medical Conditions, United States, 2003-2004

4. Revaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine— One time revaccination after 5 years for persons with chronic renal failure or nephrotic syndrome, functional or anatomic asplenia (e.g., sickle cell disease or splenectomy), immunosuppressive conditions (e.g., congenital immunodeficiency, HIV infection, leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, Hodgkins disease, generalized malignancy, organ or bone marrow transplantation), chemotherapy with alkylating agents, anti-metabolites, or long-term systemic corticosteroids. For persons 65 and older, one-time revaccination if they were vaccinated 5 or more years previously and were aged less than 65 years at the time of primary vaccination. MMWR 1997; 46 (RR-8): 1-24.

5. Hepatitis B vaccination—Medical indications: hemodialysis patients, patients who receive clotting-factor concentrates. Occupational indications: health-care workers and public-safety workers who have exposure to blood in the workplace, persons in training in schools of medicine, dentistry, nursing, laboratory technology, and other allied health professions. Behavioral indications: injecting drug users, persons with more than one sex partner in the previous 6 months, persons with a recently acquired sexually-transmitted disease (STD), all clients in STD clinics, men who have sex with men. Other indications: household contacts and sex partners of persons with chronic HBV infection, clients and staff of institutions for the developmentally disabled, international travelers who will be in countries with high or intermediate prevalence of chronic HBV infection for more than 6 months, inmates of correctional facilities. MMWR 1991; 40 (RR-13): 1-19. (www.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/hbv.htm)

6. Hepatitis A vaccination—For the combined HepA-HepB vaccine use 3 doses at 0, 1, 6 months). Medical indications: persons with clotting-factor disorders or chronic liver disease. Behavioral indications: men who have sex with men, users of injecting and noninjecting illegal drugs. Occupational indications: persons working with HAV-infected primates or with HAV in a research laboratory setting. Other indications: persons traveling to or working in countries that have high or intermediate endemicity of hepatitis A. MMWR 1999; 48 (RR-12): 1-37. (www.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/hav.htm)

slide43
Footnotes forRecommended Adult Immunization Schedule by Age Group and Medical Conditions, United States, 2003-2004

7. Measles, Mumps, Rubella vaccination (MMR)—Measles component: Adults born before 1957 may be considered immune to measles. Adults born in or after 1957 should receive at least one dose of MMR unless they have a medical contraindication, documentation of at least one dose or other acceptable evidence of immunity. A second dose of MMR is recommended for adults who:

• are recently exposed to measles or in an outbreak setting

• were previously vaccinated with killed measles vaccine

• were vaccinated with an unknown vaccine between 1963 and 1967

• are students in post-secondary educational institutions

• work in health care facilities

• plan to travel internationally

Mumps component: 1 dose of MMR should be adequate for protection. Rubella component: Give 1 dose of MMR to women whose rubella vaccination history is unreliable and counsel women to avoid becoming pregnant for 4 weeks after vaccination. For women of child-bearing age, regardless of birth year, routinely determine rubella immunity and counsel women regarding congenital rubella syndrome. Do not vaccinate pregnant women or those planning to become pregnant in the next 4 weeks. If pregnant and susceptible, vaccinate as early in postpartum period as possible. MMWR 1998; 47 (RR-8): 1-57; MMWR 2001;50: 1117.

8. Varicella vaccination—Recommended for all persons who do not have reliable clinical history of varicella infection, or serological evidence of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection who may be at high risk for exposure or transmission. This includes, health-care workers and family contacts of immunocompromised persons, those who live or work in environments where transmission is likely (e.g., teachers of young children, day care employees, and residents and staff members in institutional settings), persons who live or work in environments where VZV transmission can occur (e.g., college students, inmates and staff members of correctional institutions, and military personnel), adolescents and adults living in households with children, women who are not pregnant but who may become pregnant in the future, international travelers who are not immune to infection. Note: Greater than 95% of U.S. born adults are immune to VZV. Do not vaccinate pregnant women or those planning to become pregnant in the next 4 weeks. If pregnant and susceptible, vaccinate as early in postpartum period as possible. MMWR 1996; 45 (RR-11): 1-36; MMWR 1999; 48 (RR-6): 1-5.

slide44
Footnotes forRecommended Adult Immunization Schedule by Age Group and Medical Conditions, United States, 2003-2004

9. Meningococcal vaccine (quadrivalent polysaccharide for serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135)—Consider vaccination for persons with medical indications: adults with terminal complement component deficiencies, with anatomic or functional asplenia. Other indications: travelers to countries in which disease is hyperendemic or epidemic (“meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa, Mecca, Saudi Arabia for Hajj). Revaccination at 3-5 years may be indicated for persons at high risk for infection (e.g., persons residing in areas in which disease is epidemic). Counsel college freshmen, especially those who live in dormitories, regarding meningococcal disease and the vaccine so that they can make an educated decision about receiving the vaccination. MMWR 2000; 49 (RR-7): 1-20.

Note: The AAFP recommends that colleges should take the lead on providing education on meningococcal infection and vaccination and offer it to those who are interested. Physicians need not initiate discussion of the meningococcal quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine as part of routine medical care.

slide45

Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule, United States, 2003-2004by Medical Conditions

Contraindicated

For all persons

in this group

Catch-up on

childhood vaccinations

For persons with medical / exposure indications

Pneumococcal

(polysacch-aride) 3,4

Vaccine

Varicella*,8

Influenza 2

Hepatitis B*,5

Hepatitis A6

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) *,7

Tetanus-Diphtheria (Td)*,1

Medical Conditions

A

Pregnancy

Diabetes, heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, chronic liver disease, including chronic alcoholism

D

B

C

Congenital Immunodeficiency, leukemia, lymphoma, generalized malignancy, therapy with alkylating agents, antimetabolites, radiation or large amounts of corticosteroids

F

E

Renal failure (any type) or recipients of clotting factor concentrates

E

G

Asplenia including elective splenectomy and

terminal complement component deficiencies

H

E, I,J

E, K

HIV infection

L

-American Academy of Family Practice. http://www.aafp.org/x14956.xml

slide46
Footnotes forRecommended Adult Immunization Schedule by Age Group and Medical Conditions, United States, 2003-2004
  • A. For women without chronic diseases/conditions, vaccinate if pregnancy will be at 2nd or 3rd trimester during influenza season. For women with chronic diseases/conditions, vaccinate at any time during the pregnancy.
  • B. Although chronic liver disease and alcoholism are not indicator conditions for influenza vaccination, give 1 dose annually if the patient is age 50 years or older, has other indications for influenza vaccine, or if the patient requests vaccination.
  • C. Asthma is an indicator condition for influenza but not for pneumococcal vaccination.
  • D. For all persons with chronic liver disease.
  • E. For persons < 65 years, revaccinate once after 5 years or more have elapsed since initial vaccination.
  • F. Persons with impaired humoral immunity but intact cellular immunity may be vaccinated. MMWR 1999; 48 (RR-06): 1-5.
slide47
Footnotes forRecommended Adult Immunization Schedule by Age Group and Medical Conditions, United States, 2003-2004
  • G. Hemodialysis patients: Use special formulation of vaccine (40 ug/mL) or two 1.0 mL 20 ug doses given at one site. Vaccinate early in the course of renal disease. Assess antibody titers to hep B surface antigen (anti-HBs) levels annually. Administer additional doses if anti-HBs levels decline to <10 milliinternational units (mlU)/ mL.
  • H.There are no data specifically on risk of severe or complicated influenza infections among persons with asplenia. However, influenza is a risk factor for secondary bacterial infections that may cause severe disease in asplenics.
  • I. Administer meningococcal vaccine and consider Hib vaccine.
  • J. Elective splenectomy: vaccinate at least 2 weeks before surgery.
  • K. Vaccinate as close to diagnosis as possible when CD4 cell counts are highest.
  • L. Withhold MMR or other measles containing vaccines from HIV-infected persons with evidence of severe immunosuppression. MMWR 1998; 47 (RR-8):21-22; MMWR 2002; 51 (RR-02): 22-24.
summary
Summary
  • From a public health standpoint vaccines remain one of our most powerful tools
  • Clinically available vaccines are increadibly safe
  • Vaccination remains effective into adulthood and is cost effective into the oldest old populations
  • For the benefits gained there is no reason not to encourage or receive recommended vaccinations
resources links
Resources/Links
  • American Academy of Family Practice. http://www.aafp.org
  • Center for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov
  • Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/international/world.html
  • National Network for Immunization Information. http://www.immunizationinfo.org
  • Health Sentinel. http://www.healthsentinel.com
  • Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. http://www.vaers.org/
  • The Institute of Medicine. http://www.iom.edu/