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Disease and Vaccinations

Disease and Vaccinations

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Disease and Vaccinations

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  1. Disease and Vaccinations AGRI 3364

  2. Disease Control • What effects disease control? • Management • Well fed • Well managed healthy horses • Which are not subjected to undue stress • Vaccinations alone will not • Prevent disease

  3. Disease Control • Incidence of infectious disease tends to increase with what? • Numbers • What other factors influence disease? • Environment and Management • Quarantine may be necessary for new horses

  4. Vaccinations • Disease control programs may vary according to? • Age • Type • Number • Stocking Density • Facilities • Geographic Location • Potential Exposure to Individual Diseases

  5. Diseases • Tetanus • Caused by Clostridium tetani • Spores can live in soil for many years • Not contagious • Deep puncture wounds or open lacerations • Act by preventing relaxation • “Sawhorse” stance • Become unable to eat or drink • Finally cease to breathe

  6. Diseases • Tetanus • Yearly booster for all horses • Pregnant mares 4 – 6 wks before foaling • Tetanus antitoxin also available for short time protection

  7. Diseases • Equine Encephalomyelitis • AKA Sleeping Sickness • Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan Strains • Transmitted by mosquitoes • Not contagious horse to horse • Causes degeneration of the brain • High Fever • Mild Depression • Loss of Appetite

  8. Diseases • Equine Encephalomyelitis • Paralysis eventually occurs • Eating and Drinking Cease • Annual Vaccination Suggested • 4 to 6 months before foaling • Foal vaccination at 3 to 4 months

  9. Diseases • Influenza • Most common infectious respiratory disease • Highly contagious • Virus – can travel 35 yards • Effects lungs causing discharge and coughing • Fever up to 106 • Recovery within 10 days generally • Viruses continually evolving • Vaccination schedules vary

  10. Diseases • Equine Herpesvirus • AKA Rhinopneumonitis • Type 1 and Type 4 • Both infect respiratory tract • Similar characteristics to flu • Type 1 causes abortions • Type 4 commonly found in • Young horses entering into training • Mares to be vaccinated at 5, 7, & 9 months

  11. Diseases • Strangles • Bacterium Streptococcus equi • Primarily effects young horses • AKA distemper or barn fever • Transmitted by direct contact also water troughs, etc. • Fever, depression, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes • Vaccines are not completely effective • Vaccine schedules vary

  12. Diseases • Rabies • Neurological Disease • Must be bitten by infected wildlife • Negra bodies in brain • Fatal

  13. Diseases • Equine Infectious Anemia • Caused by a virus closely related to human immunodeficiency virus • Once infected always infected • Most common transmitters are? • Flys • Coggins test • If positive is suggested to euthanize

  14. Diseases • West Nile Disease • Mosquito Borne virus • First detected in US in 1999 • Causes encephalitis • No treatment known at this time • Vaccine available now

  15. Diseases • Equine ProtozoalMyoencephalitis (EPM) • First Recognized in mid 1970’s • Can affect any horse • Caused by ingestion of protozoa • Lead to in coordination • Vaccine and treatment now available

  16. Diseases • Vesicular Stomatitis • Virus • Causes lesions, excessive salivation, and drooling • Generally breakouts occur in warm months • Looks similar to foot and mouth disease • Transmission not clear • No specific treatment or cure • Supportive Care