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Advanced Issues in Internet Protocol (IP). IPv4 Network Address Translation (NAT) IPV6 IP Security (IPsec) Mobile IP IP Telephony. Challenges to IP. Addresses needed for 21 st century Estimated 20 billion people Multiple interfaces/node Multiple addresses/interface

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Advanced Issues in Internet Protocol (IP)


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    1. Advanced Issues in Internet Protocol (IP) • IPv4 • Network Address Translation (NAT) • IPV6 • IP Security (IPsec) • Mobile IP • IP Telephony Network Architecture and Design

    2. Challenges to IP • Addresses needed for 21st century • Estimated 20 billion people • Multiple interfaces/node • Multiple addresses/interface • Internet devices will be more numerous, and not adequately handled by NATs • mobile phones • cards • residential servers • The solution: IPv6 Network Architecture and Design

    3. IPv6 • IPv6 Address: 128 bits • 3,4x10^38 different addresses • Allows: • multiple interfaces per host • multiple addresses per interface • Advanced routing functions • unicast • multicast • anycast Network Architecture and Design

    4. IPv6 Notation • X:X:X:X:X:X:X:X where X is Hex values of 16 bits, e.g. • FEDC:BA98:7654:3210:FEDC:BA98:7654:3210 • Skip one sequence of zero words, e.g. • FEDC:0000:0000:0000:9876:0000:0000:ABCD = = FEDC::9876:0000:0000:ABCD Network Architecture and Design

    5. IPv6 Address Types • According to the prefix there are 5 types of addresses • Provider-based (global): Prefix:010 • Local use: • Link local: Prefix: 1111 1110 10 • Site local: Prefix: 1111 1110 11 • Multicast: Prefix: 1111 1111 • Reserved • unspecified, loop back, IPv6 with embedded IPv4 addresses: Prefix: 0000 0000 Network Architecture and Design

    6. IPv6 Address Types • Global - Forwarded anywhere • Link Local – Not forwarded outside the link • Site Local – Not forwarded outside the site Site-Local Link-Local Global Network Architecture and Design

    7. IPv6 Provider Based Address • Forwarded anywhere Registry ID Provider ID SubscriberID Subnet ID Interface ID 010 0 0 3 5 16 8 24 8 16 48 Network Architecture and Design

    8. IPv6 - Link Local Address • Not forwarded outside the link Interaface ID 1111 1110 10 0 10 bits n bits 118-n bits Network Architecture and Design

    9. IPv6 - Site Local Address • Not forwarded outside the site Interaface ID 1111 1110 11 0 10 bits n bits 118-n bits Network Architecture and Design

    10. IPv6 – Multicast Addresses 1111 1111 Flags Scope Group ID • Flag: 000T • T=0 for permanent address • T=1 for transient address • Scope: • 1: Node Local • 2: Link Local • 8: Org Local 8 bits 4 bits 4bits 112 bits Network Architecture and Design

    11. IPv6 Packet Header Version (4 bits) Priority (4 bits) Flow Label (24 bits) Payload Length (16 bits) Next Header (8 bits) Hop Limit (8 bits) IPv6 Source Address (128 bits) Destination Address (128 bits) Vers = 4 IHL Type of Service Total Length Fragment Offset Identification Flags Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum IPv4 Source Address Destination Address Options Shaded fields are absent from IPv6 header Network Architecture and Design

    12. IPv6 Extension Headers • Options field of IPv4 is replaced by extension headers, used for special purposes: • Extension headers are chained together IPv6 Header Next Header = TCP TCP Header + Data IPv6 Header Next Header = Routing Routing Header Next Header = TCP TCP Header + Data IPv6 Header Next Header = Routing Routing Header Next Header = Fragment Fragment Header Next Header = TCP Fragment of TCP Header + Data Network Architecture and Design

    13. IPv6 Header Types • Header Types • Hop-by-Hop = 0 • Routing Header = 43 • Fragment Header = 44 • Authentication Header = 51 • Encrypted Payload = 52 • TCP =6 • UDP =17 Network Architecture and Design

    14. IPv6Flow Label Header Field • IPv6 header gives the ability of labeling traffic flow (24 bits) • Flow label indicates that packets need special handling: • Real time service • Special QoS Network Architecture and Design

    15. IPv6 – Priority Header Field • 4 bit priority field • Enables source to identify the desired delivery priority of it’s packets relative to other packets from the same source • Two ranges • 0 through 7 specifies priority of packets (no real time) • 8 through 15 specify priority of real time packets Network Architecture and Design

    16. IPv6 Vs IPv4 • Expanded addressing capabilities • Simplified header format • Reduction in processing cost • Flow labeling • Support for authentication and privacy • Support for improved options and extensions • Support of all IPv4-based mechanisms • IPsec – diffserv – QoS features Network Architecture and Design

    17. IPv6 and IPv4 Co-existence • IPv4 and IPv6 will exist together • As time goes by: • Devices support only IPv4 • Devices support IPv4 and IPv6 • Devices support only IPv6 • Coexistence using: • Dual stack approach • Applications choose version to use • Tunneling approach • Encapsulation of IPv6 in IPv4 packets • Translation approach • Extended NAT techniques for translating IPv6 to IPv4 Network Architecture and Design

    18. Advanced Issues in Internet Protocol (IP) • IPv4 • Network Address Translation (NAT) • IPV6 • IP Security (IPsec) • Mobile IP • IP Telephony Network Architecture and Design

    19. IP Security (IPsec) • Advantages • Provides seamless security to application and transport layers (ULPs) • Allows per flow or per connection security and thus allows for very fine-grained security control • Disadvantages • More difficult to exercise on a per user basis on a multi-user machine Network Architecture and Design

    20. IPsec Services • Connectionless integrity • Assurance that received traffic has not been modified • Integrity includes anti-reply defenses • Data origin authentication • Assurance that traffic is sent by legitimate party or parties • Confidentiality (encryption) • Assurance that user’s traffic is not examined by non-authorized parties • Access control Prevention of unauthorized use of a resource Network Architecture and Design

    21. IPsec Protocols • IPsec = AH + ESP + IPcomp + IKE • Authentication Header (AH) • Provides authenticity guarantee for packets, by attaching strong crypto checksum to packets • Ensures: • The packet was originated by the expected peer • The packet was not generated by impersonator • The packet was not modified in transit Network Architecture and Design

    22. IPsec Protocols • Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) • Provides confidentiality guarantee for packets, by encrypting packets with encryption algorithms • Ensures • The packet was not wiretapped in the middle Network Architecture and Design

    23. IPsec Protocols • IP payload compression (IPcomp) • Provides a way to compress packets before encryption by ESP • Internet Key Exchange (IKE) • AH and ESP needs shared secret key between peers • IKE provides ways to negotiate keys in secrecy Network Architecture and Design

    24. IPsec Example (Tunnel) A single IPSec gateway secures multiple site networks Simplicity, High Performance, Flexibility and Compatibility IP new IP header clear text ESP IPSec ESP header IP IP IP clear text payload encrypted payload payload clear text IPSec gateway IPSec gateway Internet IPSec “tunnel” LAN LAN Network Architecture and Design

    25. IPsec Example (Transport) Bulk data in clear text, but sensitive information encrypted Privacy, Transparency, Flexibility and High Performance IP IP clear text clear text IPSec ESP header IPSec ESP header ESP ESP payload payload encrypted encrypted encrypted sensitive information IPSec host IPSec host router router Internet LAN LAN IP IP clear text payload payload clear text clear text bulk data Network Architecture and Design

    26. Advanced Issues in Internet Protocol (IP) • IPv4 • Network Address Translation (NAT) • IPV6 • IP Security (IPsec) • Mobile IP • IP Telephony Network Architecture and Design

    27. Mobile IP – The Problem • A mobile host must be assigned a new address when it moves outside of the home network • Host address must be preserved regardless of a hosts location Home Network Foreign Network Mobile node Network Architecture and Design

    28. Mobile IP – Basic Entities • Mobile Node (or Mobile Host) • Home Agent (HA) • The agent of the network where the mobile node belongs (Home Network) • Foreign Agent (FA) • The agent of the foreign network where the mobile node may be found • Home Address (HA) • The mobile node’s permanent address • Care-of Address (CA) • The mobile node’s temporary address assigned in the foreign network Network Architecture and Design

    29. Mobile IP – Basic Entities • A mobile node keeps its home address inside the home network, but in a foreign network it borrows a care-of address • Agents: • Take care of all issues related to the mapping of the care-of address to the home address • Agents are: • Routers • Advanced servers Network Architecture and Design

    30. Mobile IP Mechanism • Advertising care-of address • Registration • Tunneling Network Architecture and Design

    31. Mobile IPAdvertising Care-of Address • Home and foreign agents periodically broadcast agent advertisements (ICMP messages) to mobile nodes • Messages contain: • mobility agent address • care-of addresses • If (Network Prefix IP Source Address advertisement = Network Prefix Home Address) then • mobile node is in the home network • Else • Move detection • Registration required Network Architecture and Design

    32. Mobile IPAdvertising Care-of Address Foreign Agent Home Agent Internet Agent Addr: 132.5.3.2 Care-of Addr: 132.5.3.8 Agent Addr: 169.17.8.29 Care-of Addr: 169.17.8.11 132.5.3.69 132.5.3.74 This node is in the home network This node requires registration Network Architecture and Design

    33. Mobile IP - Registration • After registration: • Both, host and agents know the host’s new location • Home agent knows the host’s state-of address Internet Foreign Ag. relays request to Home Ag. Host requests service For. Ag. relays status to Host Home Ag. accepts or denies Network Architecture and Design

    34. Mobile IP - Tunneling • How packets from sources are delivered to host? • Home agent (router) intercepts packets destined to host • Home agent tunnels (encapsulates) packets to sate-of address • Foreign agent decapsulates packets and delivers them to mobile host Network Architecture and Design

    35. Mobile IP - Tunneling Mobile Host Home Address: 148.6.8.2 Mobile Host State-of Address: 134.2.5.7 Mobile Host Foreign Agent Home Agent Source Internet Packets to Host Dest. Addr. 148.6.8.2 Data Dest. Addr. 134.2.5.7 Dest. Addr. 148.6.8.2 Data Dest. Addr. 148.6.8.2 Data Header Payload Outer Header Inner Header Payload Header Payload Network Architecture and Design

    36. Mobile IP: NAT issues • The problem: • The Care-of address is a private address. This address is not reachable from outside the private network. • Two Mobile Nodes in different private networks may happen to have the same private address as Care-of address. • The solution: draft-ietf-mobileip-nat-traversal-05.txt • Use IP in UDP tunnels. • Use the source IP address and source port of Registration Request messages to locate the Mobile Node. • Add an option to registration messages to inform of UDP tunneling capability. Network Architecture and Design

    37. Advanced Issues in Internet Protocol (IP) • IPv4 • Network Address Translation (NAT) • IPV6 • IP Security (IPsec) • Mobile IP • IP Telephony Network Architecture and Design

    38. IP Telephony • Since today PSTN and Internet were two different networks • Need of integration • Solution: Voice over IP (VoIP) • New devices • IP Telephones • Gatekeepers Network Architecture and Design

    39. IP Telephony IP Phone PSTN IP Network Switch Gatekeeper PC Phone Network Architecture and Design

    40. IP Telephony Vs Pure Telephony • Pure Telephony: • End to End QoS • No delay • Isolated from new IP services • IP telephony • Variable QoS • Delay • Integrated with other services • Problems will be solved in the future Network Architecture and Design

    41. IP Telephony Features • Data Transport : • RTP • Signalling: • IETF SIP protocol suit • ITU-T H.323 protocol suit • Quality of Service: • RSVP Network Architecture and Design

    42. IP Telephony Protocol Stack Network Architecture and Design

    43. First Intermediate Report • NAT • Doukas • Kikilis • Mobile IP • Klaoudatou • Mavrogenis • Mobile IP: NAT issues • Lizos • Deadline: 15/03/04 Network Architecture and Design

    44. First Intermediate Report • IPv6 • Ratsiatos • Rekleitis • IPsec • Kolovou • Barbarousis • IP telephony • Baliotis • Panoutsakopoulos • IPv6 and IPv4 coexistence • Plataniwtis • Deadline: 16/03/04 Network Architecture and Design

    45. First Intermediate Report • Structure • Overview of examined technology • Focus on open research points • Related to open points works - State of the art behind open points • Your own interests - Ideas • Conclusions • References Network Architecture and Design

    46. First Intermediate Report • Report (soft and hard copy) • A related presentation (about twenty minutes). Network Architecture and Design

    47. Data PublicationandSubscriptionToolkits InstrumentManagementToolkits CollaborationToolkits ApplicationCodes VisualizationToolkits Condor poolsof workstations Grid Layers Applications Grid Enabled Libraries Data Management: replication and metadata Resource Brokering Accounting Encapsulation as Web Services Fault Management Workflow Management Services Resource Discovery Scheduling and Access to Computing Uniform Data Access Monitoring and Events Basic GridFunctions Grid Communication Functions transport services security services Communications space-based networks ... optical networks Internet Distributed Resources national supercomputer facilities Tertiary Storage On-Line Storage Scientific Instruments clusters CPUs Network Architecture and Design

    48. Emulator of distributed resources We need this emulator in order to perform • Resource discovery and resource distribution tasks http://www.samos.aegean.gr/icsd/gkorm/ Network Architecture and Design