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Dynamic stabilization of collapsing bodies against unlimited contraction. O.Yu. Tsupko 1,2 and G.S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan 1,2

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dynamic stabilization of collapsing bodies against unlimited contraction

Dynamic stabilization ofcollapsing bodiesagainst unlimited contraction

O.Yu. Tsupko1,2 and G.S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan1,2

1Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science,Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow 1179972Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russiae-mail: gkogan@iki.rssi.ru, tsupko@iki.rssi.ru

dynamic stability of spherical stars
Dynamic stability of spherical stars

Spherical star is stable if γ> 4/3.

In this work we show how deviations from spherical symmetry in a non-rotating star stabilize the collapse and a nonsphericalstar without dissipative processes will never reach a singularity. So real collapse is connected with dissipation.

slide7

Results of numerical calculations

Sphere:

ε = 1 – total energy equals to zero (H = 0), radius is arbitrary

ε < 1 – spherical star collapses to a singularity

ε > 1 – disruption of star with expansion to infinity

Spheroid:

ε = 0 – a weak singularity is reached, formation of a pancake

ε > 0 – collapse to singularity is not reached:

Atε ≥ 1 the total energy isH > 0 – disruption of star with expansion to infinity

Atε < 1 the total energy isH < 0 – the oscillatory regime is established, in which dynamical motion preventsthe formation of the singularity. The type of oscillatory regime depends on initial conditions, and may be represented either by regular periodic oscillations, or by chaotic behavior.

slide12

The regular oscillationsare represented by closed lines on the Poincar´e map, and chaoticbehaviour fills regions of finite square with dots.

slide13

The regular oscillationsare represented by closed lines on the Poincar´e map, and chaoticbehaviour fills regions of finite square with dots.

conclusions
Conclusions

The main result following from our calculations is the indication of a degenerate nature of formation of a singularity in unstable newtonian self-gravitating gaseous bodies.

Only pure spherical models can collapse to singularity, but any kind of nonsphericity leads to nonlinear stabilization of the collapse by a dynamic motion, and formation of regularly or chaotically oscillating body.

This conclusion is valid for all unstable equations of state, namely, for adiabatic with γ< 4/3.

In reality a presence of dissipation leads to damping of these oscillations, and to final collapse of nonrotating model, when total energy of the body is negative.

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Within the framework of general relativity, dynamic stabilizationagainst collapse by non-linear non-spherical oscillations cannot beuniversal. When the size of the body approaches gravitational radius,no stabilization is possible at any γ . Nevertheless, the nonlinearstabilization may occur at larger radii, so after damping of theoscillations the star would collapse to a black hole.
  • Qualitatively,we obtain the same results for three-axis ellipsoids; no singularity was reachedfor any ε > 0 and establishing an oscillatory (regular or chaotic)regime under negative total energy prevents the collapse. However,for the three-axis ellipsoidwe have a system with threedegrees of freedom and six-dimensional phase space. Therefore, wecould not carry out a rigorous investigation of the regular and chaotictypes of motion by constructing a Poincar´e map, as was done for aspheroid with two degrees of freedom.

Bisnovatyi-Kogan G.S., Tsupko O.Yu. Dynamic stabilization of non-spherical bodies against unlimited collapse // Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2008. V.386. P.1398.