Bell Ringer #1 • Locate the following: • The Netherlands are located east of ____ and within the borders of ____. • Define the following: • Divine Right of Kings- *Use Chapter 14, Sections 1 and 2!
Chapter 14 Sections 1 & 2 Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion & Social Crisis, War, and Revolution
France • 1560- Calvinists and Catholics were militant (combative) • Win converts • Eliminate other’s authority • Huguenots(HYOO guh NAWTS)- French Protestants • 7% of total population • 40-50% of the nobility • Powerful threat to the Crown • 1598- Edict of Nantes by King Henry IV • Catholicism became the official religion of France • Huguenots gained freedom to worship and kept political rights
Spain • 1556-1598- King Phillip II • Supporter of militant Catholicism • Wanted to unify Spanish territory in Spain, the Netherlands, Italy, and the Americas • Each nation/territory resisted the Spanish control • Many refused to convert to Catholicism • Spain went bankrupt due to military spending • Out-of-date military • Inefficient government
England • 1558- Queen Elizabeth I • England became the leader of the Protestant nations of Europe • Act of Supremacy- Supreme leader of the church and government • Moderate Protestantism- Kept Protestants and Catholics happy • Attempted to balance the power between France and Spain • If one nation seemed to gain power, England would support the weaker nation • 1588- Phillip II of Spain ordered an armada (fleet of warships) to invade England • Lost battles against the English fleet • Many ships sank off the coast of Ireland and Scotland due to storms
The Thirty Years War • 1555- Peace of Augsburg • Allowed Germans to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism • Did not include Calvinism (newest form of Protestantism) • 1618- Began in the Holy Roman Empire • Started as a religious war • Germany v. HRE • Soon became political • Denmark, Sweden, France, and Spain joined
The Thirty Years War • All fighting took place in Germany • France emerged as the dominant European nation • 1648- War ended • Freedom of religion in Germany • Holy Roman Empire is dissolved • Over 300 states were recognized as independent nations
Revolutions in England • 1603- King James I (Elizabeth I’s cousin) • Divine Right of Kings- kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God • Parliament- group of representatives of English citizens • Crown and Parliament ruled together
Revolutions in England • 1688- William and Mary • Glorious Revolution led to the English Bill of Rights • Parliament’s right to make laws, impose taxes, and declare war • Citizens rights to keep arms and trial by jury • Government based on rule of law (everyone must obey the law) and constitutional monarchy (king is head of country but laws are made by parliament) • Destroys the divine right theory
Label major European countries and color code them by individual religion. • Label your map “European Religions Circa 1560” • Using the maps on page RA10, 431 & 432 of your text, label the following countries (use black or standard pencil): Spain, France, England, Italy (Italian States) • Using the map on page 431, label the Netherlands. • And, OUTLINE & label the Holy Roman Empire Boundary in RED. • Make a legend for the following countries in the white space. • Catholic- Yellow • Lutheran- Orange • Calvinist-Blue • Anglican- Green
Bell Ringer #2 • Define the following: • Absolutism- • Identify the following: • Thomas Hobbes- • John Locke- *Use Chapter 14, Section 3-4!
Chapter 14 Sec 3-4(ish)& Not in Textbook Response to Crisis: Absolutism and The World of European Culture
Response to Crisis • Absolutism- political system where a ruler has total power • Monarchs gained strength • Divine right of kings • Tremendous power • Caused by the weakening of the church during the Renaissance and Reformation • Louis XIV of France • Frederick William the Great Elector of Prussia • Peter the Great of Russia
Four Theories of Government • 4 theories of government emerged due to Absolutism • Force Theory • Evolutionary Theory • Divine Right Theory • Social Contract Theory
Force Theory • A person or a small group claimed control over land and forced all within to submit to his/their rule • Citizens don’t have a choice
Evolutionary Theory • State developed naturally out of early family dynamics. • “Head” of the family was the first stage of political development
Divine Right Theory • Theory that God created the state and that God gave those of “royal birth” the right to rule. • Monarchy
Social Contract Theory • An agreement or contract between the people and the government.
Social Contract Theory • Thomas Hobbs- 1651 • People give up their right to be governed • The government will protect people’s rights • John Locke- 1690 • Natural Rights- Life, Liberty, and Property • Inalienable- cannot be taken away by the government • The government protects the people’s rights and the people act reasonably toward the government • If the government does not hold up its end of the deal, the people will have the right to overthrow the government • Inspired the American Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution
Theories of Government Practice • Write a short story for each theory of government that accurately demonstrates the theory. • 25 points each • No less than 5 sentences each • Should have a beginning and an end
Example: • John and Mari were best friends for several years. They started dating when the were sophomores in high school and attended college together. After college, they moved to Podunk, USA and started a beef cattle farm. Their closest neighbor was 25 miles away. However, as time passed and John and Mari were now in their 50s, the town had grown to 25 families. The families regarded John as it’s community leader because he was the first person to live there and he was the oldest. They always turned to him in times of need and crisis (such as a drought).
Bell Ringer #3 • Define the following: • Geocentric- • Heliocentric- *Use Chapter 17 Section 1!
Chapter 17 Section 1 The Scientific Revolution
Background to the Revolution • Medieval Era- • No new research • Relied on ancient “authorities” • Aristotle • Renaissance- • Humanists knew Greek and Latin • Studied other “authorities” • Ptolemy, Archimedes, Plato
Background to the Revolution • 16th & 17th c. Inventions- • Telescope, Microscope, Printing Press • Allowed for new discoveries • Spread new ideas quickly and easily
Background to the Revolution • 16th & 17th c. Mathematicians • Copernicus • Kepler • Galileo • Newton • “Secrets of Nature are written in the language of mathematics” • Developed new theories
A Revolution in Astronomy • Astronomy- Scientific study of the universe
Ptolemaic System • Ptolemy- 2nd c. astronomer • Geocentric- earth centered • Series of concentric (one inside the other) spheres • Earth is fixed/motionless at the center • Spheres are made of a crystal-like/transparent substance • Heavenly bodies/pure orbs of light are embedded • 10th sphere- “prime mover” moved the other spheres • Beyond- Heaven and God
Copernicus and Kepler • Copernicus- 16th c. mathematician • Heliocentric- sun-centered • Planets revolve around the sun (one year) • The moon revolves around earth • Earth rotates on a daily axis • Kepler- 17th c. mathematician • Laws of Planetary Motion • Elliptical (egg shaped) orbits around the sun • Sun is located at the end of the ellipse, not the middle
Galileo • Galileo- 17th c. mathematician • Used the telescope to discover • Mountains on the moon • 4 moons revolving around Jupiter • Sunspots • Planets are material, not just orbs of light
Galileo and the Catholic Church • Church ordered Galileo to abandon the Copernican idea. • Threatened Catholic thinking • “Contradicted” the Bible • Heavens no longer spiritual body of matter • Humans no longer center of the universe • God isn’t in a physical location
Newton • Newton- 17th c. mathematician • Three Laws of Motion • Planets and objects on Earth • Universal Law of Gravitation • Gravity- force of attraction • Every object in the universe is attracted to every other object • Planetary orbits
Bell Ringer #4 • Identify the following: • Robert Boyle- • Francis Bacon- • Use Chapter 17 Section 1!
Chapter 17 Section 1 The Scientific Revolution
Medicine and Chemistry • Middle Ages- relied on animal dissection, not human • 16th Century • Dissected the human body • Two types of blood • 17th Century • Heart circulates blood through body • Same blood
Medicine and Chemistry • Robert Boyle- 17th c. Chemist • Conducted controlled experiments • Boyle’s Law = volume of a gas depends on pressure • Named chemical elements
Women and Science • Margaret Cavendish- 17th c. Scientist • Humans could not control nature through science • Maria Winkelmann- 17th c. Astronomer • Discovered a comet • Both women were going against the gender norms for women of the time
Descartes and Reason • Rene Descartes- 17th c. Philosopher • Discourse on Method, 1637 • “ I think, therefore I am” • A person can only be sure of his/her existence • The mind cannot be doubted • Separation of Mind and Matter • Body and material world can be doubted • Mind is undoubting, therefore separate • Rationalism- reason is the chief source of knowledge
The Scientific Method • Francis Bacon- 17th c. English Philosopher • Scientific Method- A system for collecting and analyzing data • Inductive Reasoning
Inductive Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning- • particular facts general theory • Observe and experiment to test hypothesis • Wanted science to benefit industry, agriculture, and trade
Bell Ringer #5 • Identify the following: • John Locke- • Use Chapter 17 Section 2!
Chapter 17 Section 2 The Enlightenment