Where do you find graphic design? Adverts, billboard, magazine or poster Magazine covers
Where do you find graphic design? Book covers Logo
Where do you find graphic design? Signs (ie motorway) leaflets
Where do you find graphic design? CD covers packaging
Where do you find graphic design? Web page design Computer games
What is Graphic Design? • The main purpose of graphic design is to communicate a message using visual imagery (pictures) and text (words). • Sometimes graphic design can communicate a message using only visual imagery. (graphic means to draw). • Sometimes graphic design can communicate a message using only text. Time magazine cover 2004
Design issues in Graphic Design As part of your art and design studies you will learn to be able to discuss examples of graphic design. You will learn about the main design issues in graphic design. These are; • Function • Materials and techniques • Target market • Aesthetics • Layout • Imagery • Text • Visual elements.
The words used to communicate the message are the text. The alphabet used to write the text has been designed by a graphic designer. This is called the font, or the lettering. A typography designer (typo = form, graphy = writing) is a graphic designer who specialises in designing letters. This font is called Broadway This font is called Chiller This font is called Impact What is text? Joe Henderson album 1964
What is visual imagery? • The visual imagery describes the pictures used in a piece of graphic design. • The visual imagery will have a narrative (it will tell a story). It may be a very simple story or it may create a narrative with lots of questions and ideas, such as the Benetton poster advert. The image can be; • realistic, accurately looks like something. • Semi – abstract, looks like something but is simplified. • Abstract, doesn’t look like anything in particular, often shapes, patterns and colours arranged attractively. • The graphic designer can produce the visual imagery using various materials and techniques. Benetton poster advert, 1989
What is layout? • Graphic design is 2D (two dimensional, it is flat, not solid) • The visual imagery and text are arranged within the space in order to create the layout. • A well constructed layout creates visual impact. • Visual impact means the visual imagery and the text catch the viewer’s attention. If the graphic design has visual impact then it communicates the message clearly and quickly.
The main function (purpose) of graphic design is to communicate a message using visual imagery (pictures) and text (words). It could be a leaflet with information. It could be a poster advertising a product. It could be a CD cover which makes the music look attractive or fashionable. It could be a breakfast cereal package which is encouraging you to buy that product. Design issues in Graphic DesignFunction
Design issues in Graphic DesignFunction • In order to be an effective design the graphic design should be able to capture your attention. It should have visual impact and be a memorable design. • An effective design should be able to communicate a message clearly and quickly. Effective graphic design has both visual imagery and text which is easy to read. ‘We can do it!’ 1941. Rosie the Riveter J. Howard Miller
The main function (purpose) of graphic design is to communicate a message using visual imagery (pictures) and text (words). But who is the graphic design trying to communicate to? The target market is the type of person the graphic design is trying to communicate with. The design may be aiming to inform or educate a group of people, or, it may be trying to sell a product to a group of people. Design issues in Graphic DesignTarget Market Molton Brown shower gel for men. Target market, male, luxury, stylish fashionable, expensive packaging, possible special gift, wide range of ages but older than teenagers.
Aesthetics is the style or ‘look’ of the graphic design. The aesthetics should be attractive. The aesthetics is chosen to attract a particular target market. Design issues in Graphic DesignAesthetics Cartoon images, stand out against familiar Cadbury purple, playful, bold simplified shapes, childish but also smart. Attracts children but also adults, you never grow out of a packet of buttons.
Line Shape Form Pattern Colour Texture Tone Two or three of the visual elements will be strongly used in a design. How the visual elements are used contribute to the visual impact. Design issues in Graphic DesignVisual Elements Shape, pattern and colour create a dynamic visual impact.
Before 1880 printers were the people who produced information posters, leaflets and book covers They would commission artists to create illustrations which they would print along side the text. In 1454 a printing press with movable type was invented. This made it possible to mass produce printed books or posters. Before this invention all books were hand written (and very expensive). Printing pictures had been possible for some time. Wood cut was used to print pictures, but now you could also print text with the pictures. Design issues in Graphic DesignMaterials and Techniques – abrief history German woodcut Made around 1500
Techniques for printing pictures also developed. Engraving and etching developed, a line drawing could be scratched on to a metal plate and acid would permanently ‘etch’ the image on to the plate. Lithography developed in the late 1700’s. The artist could draw an image on a litho stone using a wax crayon which would repel the oily ink and repeatedly print an image. In 1880 colour lithography developed and very high quality, visually striking images could be produced. Design issues in Graphic DesignMaterials and Techniques – a brief history Lithographic stone and image of Princeton University, 1800.
In Paris, France, there was a demand for striking colour posters to advertise the theatre and entertainment venues. Artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec, Cheret and Bonnard became illustrators and produced high quality images for these posters. This is often described as the birth of graphic design. High quality, striking images with good layout created visually striking posters. These posters succeeded in attracting more customers for the Parisian theatre. Design issues in Graphic DesignMaterials and Techniques – a brief history Poster for ice rink at the Champs Elysees in Paris. By Jules Cheret. 1880’s
In the 20th century (1900 -1999) new forms of mass communication developed. Magazines, cinema, television, and the rapid development of the advertising industry in America in the 1950’s all needed high quality graphic design. Materials rapidly developed too. Photography became an easier medium to use and mass produce and colour photography developed in the 1950’s. Airbrush, a pen which combines paint with high pressured air to create a fine ‘mist’ of paint, developed and was popular with illustrators and record cover designers. Design issues in Graphic DesignMaterials and Techniques – a brief history David Bowie album Aladdin Sane 1973 Photography and airbrush Designed by Brian Duffy Design Concepts
The most significant tool for graphic designers has been the development of computers. Computers have been the first tool to fully combine image and text. Movable type and a printing press are no longer used to print newspapers and magazines. A computer is able to plan the full layout and then print it on a laser printer. A computer is more flexible. The design can be saved digitally. It can be re-arranged or re-used in the future. A computer is able to combine digital photographs with hand drawn (using a computer drawing tool or a scanner) and digitally enhanced images. Design issues in Graphic DesignMaterials and Techniques – a brief history ‘Post’ CD by Bjork 1995 Photograph and digital image
Visual impact = scale, size, colour, text, style, content of image, form of package and layout. Green and Black organic chocolate gift packs. 35gr mini bars. 2010 Kit Kat poster advert, 1970’s