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Enzymes

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Enzymes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Enzymes. Chemical Reactions. Energy breaks chemical bonds Energy released (heat & light) Energy stored in new bonds Activation Energy: amount of energy needed to start a reaction. Exothermic Reactions. Exo = exit; thermic = heat Defined: Release more energy than it absorbs Light & heat

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chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • Energy breaks chemical bonds
    • Energy released (heat & light)
    • Energy stored in new bonds
  • Activation Energy: amount of energy needed to start a reaction
exothermic reactions
Exothermic Reactions
  • Exo = exit; thermic = heat
  • Defined: Release more energy than it absorbs
    • Light & heat
  • Ex: Cellular Respiration
    • Process that creates energy for cells
    • Chemical energy released for cells…
    • Heat energy released for warmth
endothermic reactions
Endothermic Reactions
  • Endo = within; thermic heat
  • Defined: Absorb more energy than it releases
  • Ex: Photosynthesis
    • Sugar has more energy in the bonds than CO2 + H2O
enzymes
Enzymes
  • Activation energy usually comes from an increase in temp
    • Slow process
  • Catalyst: substance that decreases the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction
    • Speeds up reaction
  • Enzymes reduce energy needed (activation energy) to start a chemical reaction
controlled settings
Controlled Settings
  • Human body ~98.6°F
    • Can’t raise body temp to start reactions.
  • Internal reactions would be too slow to sustain life without a catalyst
  • Ex: Saliva
    • Breaks down starch 1,000,000x faster with amylase
enzyme structure
Enzyme Structure
  • Enzyme shape allows specific reactants to bind together
    • Reactants = substrate
    • Ex: Amylase & starch: Starch is the substrate because it binds to amylase
  • Substrates binds to activation sites on the enzyme (key fitting into a lock)
  • Once binded to enzyme, substrates bonds weakened
  • Substrates bonds break
  • Substrates re-bond to each other