Nutley High School - Biology 1 st QUARTER REVIEW - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Nutley High School - Biology1st QUARTER REVIEW NJ BIOLOGY COMPETENCE TEST – 2010 Reviews 2010 NJ CCCS in Biology: 5.1.12 A-C, 5.3.12 A1, 5.3.12A2,5.3.12.B.2, 5.3.12A3

  2. Question #1 1. Frank flips the switch to turn on the light in his bedroom and nothing happens. He notices that the other lights in his home work and the radio in his room also works. Frank thinks the light bulb must be burned out. He gets a new bulb and replaces the old one. When he does the light works. A. What is Frank's hypothesis? B. How does Frank test his hypothesis? C. What is the conclusion about Frank's hypothesis?

  3. Question # 2 - Suprasweet Observations: • A new artificial sweetener, Suprasweet, is used in some foods and drinks to reduce calories. • Some food additives are known to cause cancer. • Scientists from a research institution report that another kind of artificial sweetener has been linked to bladder cancer in rats. Hypothesis: • Suprasweet may increase the risk of getting bladder cancer.

  4. Question # 2 - Suprasweet Experiment: • 100 rats are used in a controlled experiment with Suprasweet. • Fifty rats are given Suprasweet and fifty rats are given regular sugar. • At the end of the experiment all the rats are checked for bladder cancer. Results of Experiment: • One of the fifty rats who received regular sugar developed bladder cancer. • Nine of the fifty rats who received Suprasweet developed bladder cancer.

  5. Question # 2 - Suprasweet Conclusion: • Suprasweet appears to cause bladder cancer in rats. It may also cause cancer in man. Further studies will need to be conducted to determine if Suprasweet is an agent for causing cancer in man.

  6. Question # 2 - Suprasweet A. What is suprasweet? B. What is the concern about suprasweet?

  7. Question #3 3. An experimental setup is shown in the diagram below. Which hypothesis would most likely be tested using this setup? A. Green water plants release a gas in the presence of light. B. Roots of water plants absorb minerals in the absence of light. C. Green plants need light for cell division. D. Plants grow best in the absence of light. • Why?

  8. Question #4 4. Which of these experimental setups would be the first step in determining whether earthworms choose a wet environment or a dry environment? A. B. C. D.

  9. Question #5 5. The graph shows the results of a restocking program in which shrimp raised on a shrimp farm are released into the wild. If this trend continues, about how many metric tons of shrimp will be released in 1999? A. 12 B. 13 C. 14 D. 15 • Why?

  10. Question #6 6. The graph shows the growth of a Daphnia population in a 420 liter aquarium. According to these data, what was the approximate Daphnia population by the end of the second day? A. 40 B. 60 C. 80 D. 100 • Why?

  11. Question #7 7. According to these data, what is the average growth rate for this type of brown algae? A. 6 cm/day B. 7 cm/day C. 8 cm/day D. 9 cm/day • Why?

  12. Question #8 8. Male collard lizards are larger than females. According to the pictures above, the difference in length between the male and the female collard lizard when measured from the tip of the nose to the tip of the tail is approximately: A.3 cm B. 8 cm C.12 cm D. 15 cm • Why?

  13. A review of the basic chemistry of small molecules • On Earth, there are many different types of elements. • The four most abundant elements in living organisms are: • Hydrogen (H) • Oxygen (O) • Nitrogen (N) • Carbon (C)

  14. Terms to know • Atom the smallest component of matter, consisting of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by a charged cloud of electrons. • Element matter composed of atoms that all have the same atomic number. • Proton particle in the nucleus with a charge of +1. • Neutron a non-charged particle in the nucleus of an atom. • Electron particle orbiting the nucleus with a charge of -1, has an extremely small mass. • Isotope atoms with the same number of protons and electrons, but different numbers of neutrons. Complete matching question #9

  15. Polarity of Water • Water is composed of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. • Each hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to the oxygen. • Water is a "polar" molecule because the electrons are not shared equally between oxygen and hydrogen. • Water has a partial negative charge near the oxygen atom due the unshared pairs of electrons, and partial positive charges near the hydrogen atoms. • Hydrogen bonds occur between the negatively charged oxygen of one water molecule and the positively charged hydrogen of another water molecule.

  16. Many other unique properties of water are due to hydrogen bonds. • For example, ice floats because hydrogen bonds hold water molecules further apart in a solid than in a liquid. • Water has strong surface tension, high specific heat, and is considered the universal solvent. Complete questions #10-11

  17. Acids and Bases, Ionization of Water • Acids have more hydronium ions (H+) • Bases have more hydroxide ions (OH-) • The pH scale measures whether a solution is an acid or a base and uses a numerical range of 0 – 14. • at pH 7.0, a solution is neutral • at lower pH (0 – 6), a solution is acidic • Examples: Lemon juice, Vinegar, Stomach acid • at higher pH (8 – 14), a solution is basic • Examples: Dish detergent, Baking soda, Tums, Alka-seltzer Complete question #12

  18. Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates are better known to students as sugars and starches. • Monosaccharides are also known as simple sugars. • Examples: glucose and fructose (C6H12O6) • Functions: • An energy source for cells during cellular respiration, • Used to build cell structures and other organic molecules within the cells. • Disaccharides are also known as a double sugar and are composed of two monosaccharides joined together. • Examples: Sucrose (table sugar) • Polysaccharides are long chains of monosaccharides bond together. • Examples: • Plants store glucose in the form of starch. • Animals, like humans, store excess glucose in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscles. • Cellulose makes up the cell wall of plants • Chitin provides structure to fungi and the exoskeleton of arthropods.  

  19. Lipids • Function: • Long-term energy storage. • Lipids are also an important component of the cell membrane. • Structure: • Lipids consist of glycerol and fatty acids "tails". • The fatty acid "tails" are long non-polar chains of carbon and hydrogen . This means that lipids don't mix with (polar) water. • The fatty acid chains can be saturated or unsaturated • Saturated lipids have a long carbon-hydrogen chain with no double bonds. • Unsaturated lipids have a long carbon-hydrogen chain with some double bonds.

  20. Nucleic Acids • Nucleic Acids • 2 types: DNA and RNA • Function • DNA stores our genetic information. This information is used as directions to make all molecules within the organism. • DNA’s genetic information is copied into RNA. • RNA brings this information to the ribosome, where proteins will be made from this information. • Structure • The building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides. • There are four different nucleotides that make up DNA. • adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. • There are four different nucleotides that make up RNA. • adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil.

  21. Proteins Proteins • Function: • Structural proteins such as collagen or elastin, provide support • Enzymes control cell processes • Proteins are also a part of the immune system (antibodies), are used for oxygen transport (hemoglobin), and movement (muscles) etc. • Most proteins work best at a specific temperature and pH range. • Structure: • The building blocks of proteins are amino acids. • There are 20 different amino acids that combine to form proteins. Complete the info chart for question #13

  22. ENZYMES (a type of protein) • Enzymes allow living organisms to maintain homeostasis • Enzymes function as catalysts • A catalyst lowers the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction • This allows chemical reactions to occur much faster • Enzymes are not changed during the reaction and can be used many times • Enzymes are specific for their substrate (reactant), much like a “lock and key” • Enzyme names typically end in –ase (helicase, DNA polymerase, lactase) Complete question #14

  23. Question #15 Lemurs’ bodies are adapted to efficiently store energy for times when food is scarce. This adaptation may help to explain how lemur ancestors survived the trip across the Mozambique Channel from mainland Africa to Madagascar. Which of the following types of molecules would be most beneficial to the lemurs’ journey? A. Lipids B. Monosaccharides C. Nucleic acids D. Proteins

  24. Question #16 Which of the following best explains why enzymes are necessary for many cellular reactions? A. Enzymes supply the oxygen necessary for the reactions. B. Enzymes change reactants from solid to liquid during the reactions. C. The reactions take up too much space in the cell if enzymes are missing. D. The reactions are too slow to meet the needs of the cell if enzymes are missing.

  25. Question #17 Some insects can stand on the surface of the water because: A. water has a high specific heat B. water has a high boiling point C. water is a good evaporative coolant D. water’s molecules are cohesive and adhesive

  26. Question #18 According to this graph, during a chemical reaction enzymes: A. decrease the required time B. raise the energy produced C. lower the required activation energy D. increase the initial-state energy

  27. Question #19 Proteins are formed from monomers (subunits) called : A. amino acids B. fatty acids C. nucleic acids D. ribonucleic acids

  28. Question #20 Which statement summarizes the information in the graph? A. the cells survive best under acidic conditions B. the cells survive best under basic conditions C. these cells would survive better in distilled water D. the survival of these cells does not affect pH

  29. Question #21 The human body uses carbohydrates as a: A. source of energy B. material for muscle production C. carrier of oxygen D. coenzyme of metabolism

  30. Complete Question #22

  31. Animal/Plant Cell Comparison Complete the diagram for question #23

  32. Question #24 Use the information in the chart on the previous slide.

  33. Question #25 Certain poisons are toxic to organisms because they interfere with the function of enzymes in mitochondria. This results directly in the inability of the cell to : A build proteins B store information C dispose of metabolic wastes D release energy from nutrients

  34. Components of Cell (Plasma) Membrane • Phospholipids • Make up the majority of the cell membrane • Double layered structure, known as a bilayer • Hydrophilic “heads” orient themselves towards the outside • Hydrophobic “tails” orient themselves towards the middle • This basic structure makes the membrane a semi-permeable barrier to hydrophilic molecules. • Proteins - Proteins of membranes are divided into two general classes: • Integral proteins – span the entire length of the membrane • Peripheral proteins – associate with one side of the memrane • Membrane proteins play roles in transporting materials through the membrane

  35. Question #26 The diagram below shows a cross section of a cell membrane. A. Describe the basic structure of the cell membrane. B. Describe two primary functions of the cell membrane. C. Explain how its structure relates to its function.

  36. DIFFUSION Diffusion - the process by which molecules spread from areas of high concentration, to areas of low concentration. When the molecules are even throughout a space - it is called EQUILIBRIUM ONLY SMALL, NONPOLAR, UNCHARGED MOLECULES CAN DIFFUSE ACROSS A CELL MEMBRANE Concentration Gradient - a difference between concentrations

  37. OSMOSIS Osmosis - the diffusion of water (across a membrane) Water will move in the direction where there is a high concentration of solute (a lower concentration of water).

  38. EFFECT OF OSMOSIS ON CELLS Animal cellsPlant cells • If the solution is isotonic relative to the cell, then the solute concentrations are the same on both sides of the membrane and water moves equally in both directions • A hypertonic solution has increased solute, and a net movement of water outside causing the cell to shrink • A hypotonic solution has decreased solute concentration, and a net movement of water inside the cell, causing swelling or breakage.

  39. ACTIVE TRANSPORT Active Transport - When cells must move materials towards an area of higher concentration- against the concentration gradient. This requires Energy (ATP). Proteins or Pumps are found in the cell membrane and transport molecules across the membrane. Active transport is used for: calcium, potassium, and sodium ions

  40. BULK TRANSPORT • Endocytosis - cell takes in large particles by engulfing them • Phagocytosis - "cell eating" - extensions off cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a food vacuole and then the cell engulfs it. Ex. Amoebas use this process. • Pinocytosis - the process of taking up liquid from the surrounding environment. Tiny pockets form along the membrane, fill with liquid, and pinch off. • Exocytosis - cell gets rid of particles, opposite of endocytosis

  41. Question #27 An animal cell surrounded by fresh water will burst because the osmotic pressure causes: A. water to move into the cell B. solutes to move into the cell C. water to move out of the cell D. solutes to move out of the cell

  42. Question #28 Placing wilted lettuce in cold water will make it crisp again. Which statement describes what happens to restore the lettuce to its original condition? A. water left the lettuce cells by diffusion B. osmosis caused salts to enter the lettuce cells C. salts in the leaf caused water to leave the cells D. water entered the cells of the lettuce by osmosis

  43. Question #29 What would happen to an animal cell with an internal salt concentration of 0.8% if it were placed in a 20.0% salt solution? A. net movement of water out of the cell causes it to shrink B. net movement of water into the cell causes it to burst C. there will not be any net movement of water D. there will be a net movement of salt into the cell