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Chapter 20: A Nation of Cities. Growing Cities. 1850. 23 million people lived in the USA 20 million lived on farms, in towns, or villages 3.5 million lived in cities Increase from 15% to 40% in cities. 1900. Reasons for moving to cities. Exciting Many things to do Easier to find jobs

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growing cities
Growing Cities

1850

  • 23 million people lived in the USA
  • 20 million lived on farms, in towns, or villages
  • 3.5 million lived in cities
  • Increase from 15% to 40% in cities

1900

reasons for moving to cities
Reasons for moving to cities
  • Exciting
  • Many things to do
  • Easier to find jobs
    • Large factories needed worker.

Cities specialized

  • Pittsburg, Pennsylvania  Steel
  • Cleveland, Ohio  Oil refining
  • Chicago, Illinois  meat-packing
working conditions in cities
Working Conditions in Cities
  • Mass production
  • Competition was great
  • Did not have to pay high salaries
  • Poor working conditions
  • Safety was the workers responsibility
  • Children worked in factories
statue of liberty
Statue of Liberty
  • New York City Harbor
  • Given by France
  • “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.” Emma Lazarus
immigrants come to america
Immigrants come to America
  • Seeking liberty
  • Seeking jobs
  • Seeking opportunity for a better life
coming to america
Coming to America
  • Most immigrants bought tickets in steerage
  • Below deck near the engines
  • Noisy, unhealthy,
  • Little food
immigrants
Immigrants

Before 1880s

  • “Old Immigrants”
  • England, Ireland,
  • Germany Sweden, Norway
  • “New Immigrants”
  • Southern Europe
  • Russia, Poland, Greece, and Italy

After 1880s

reasons for coming to the usa
Reasons for Coming to the USA
  • Wanted farmland (Homestead Act of 1862)
  • Escape unfair laws
  • Religious freedom

Immigrants

  • Largest group—Italy
  • 2nd Largest group—Jewish immigrants
  • West coast immigrants--Asia
jane addams
Jane Addams
  • Hull House
  • Help immigrants
  • Set up nurseries, classes to train
  • Started labor unions
problems immigrants faced
Problems Immigrants faced
  • Few could speak English
  • Very poor
  • Worked hard jobs
  • Denied jobs because of nationality
  • Prejudice (a belief or action against someone because of race, sex, religion, or age)
  • Jim Crow Laws- Laws passed to keep African-Americans from voting
  • Plessy v. Ferguson- Upheld segregation
city living
City Living
  • Theaters
  • Dances and Music halls
  • Roller skating rinks
transportation
Transportation
  • Horse-drawn trolleys
  • “Street cars”
  • Thomas Edison invented the electric motor
f w woolworths
F. W. Woolworths
  • Department store
  • Fixed rates
leisure activities
Leisure Activities
  • Opera Houses
  • Symphony orchestras
  • Museums
  • Baseball
  • Basketball

-Created by James Naismith (Springfield, Massachusetts)

  • Restaurants
tenements
Tenements
  • 3 to 4 story buildings
  • Housed 8 to 10 families
  • 10 people living in one room
  • “dumbbell tenements”—32 families in each
  • Miserable conditions
  • Dark
  • Dreary
  • Poor ventilation
  • Very noisy
  • Inadequate fire escapes
jacob riis
Jacob Riis
  • New York newspaper reporter
  • How the Other Half Lives
  • Cities were not prepared to deal with problems
helpful groups
Helpful Groups
  • Salvation Army
  • Young Men’s and Women’s Club
  • Christian Associations